Laghukathāḥ - SHORT STORIES

Alasaḥ Bālaḥ - The Lazy Boy

 एकत्र कश्चिद् बालको निवसति स्म । अलसः सः प्रतिदिनं समयेन विद्यालयं न गच्छति। एकदा उद्याने स एकं काकमपश्यत्। स तं काकं क्रीडार्थमाह्वयत्। तदा काकोऽवदन्मम समयो नास्ति। अनन्तरं बालः शुकं दृष्ट्वा तमपि क्रीडार्थमाह्वयत्। तदा सोऽपि मम समयो नास्तीत्यवदत्। एवमेवैकां पिपीलिकामपि क्रीडार्थमाह्वयत् स बालः। तदानीं सापि ’मम समयो नास्ति’ इत्यवदत्। एतत् सर्वं श्रुत्वा लज्जयावनतमुखः सः ’सर्वे स्व‍स्वकार्येषु निरता’ इत्यजानात्। ततः प्रभृति सः समयेन विद्यालयं गत्वा पठितुमारभत ।

 ekatra kaścid bālakao nivasati sma. alasaḥ saḥ pratidinaṃ samayena vidyālayaṃ na gacchati . ekadā udyāne sa ekaṃ kākamapaśyat . sa taṃ kākaṃ krīḍārthamāhvayat . tadā kākaḥ avadat- mama samayo nāsti . anantaraṃ bālaḥ śukaṃ dṛṣṭvā tamapi krīḍārthamāhvayat. tadā so'pi mama samayo nāstītyavadat . evamevaikāṃ pipīlikāmapi krīḍārthamāhvayat sa bālaḥ. tadānīṃ sāpi ’mama samayo nāsti’ ityavadat . etat sarvaṃ śrutvā lajjayāvanatamukhaḥ saḥ ’ sarve sva-svakāryeṣu niratā’ ityajānāt. tataḥ prabhṛti saḥ samayena vidyālayaṃ gatvā paṭhitumārabhata.

 Word Transliteration Technical information Meaning

 एकत्र ekatra Indeclinable (eka + tral) in one place

 कश्चित् kaścit kim + indefinite particle 'cit' some

 m-ending, Masc., Nom., singular

 ( 'cit', 'cana' or 'api' when added to

 different forms of 'kim', convey the

 sense of something unspecific or general in nature)

 बालकः bālakaḥ bāla + ka a-ending, Masc., little boy

 Nom., singular

 निवसति स्म nivasati sma ni + vas, parasmai., laṭ, lived

 III, singular; With indeclinable

 'sma', laṭ denotes past tense

 अलसः alasaḥ a-ending, Masc., Nom., singular lazy/

 laid back

 सः saḥ d-ending pronoun, Masc., he

 

Nom., singular

 

प्रतिदिम् pratidinam Indeclinable dinam dinam prati everyday

 

āvyayībhāva compound

 

समयेन samayena a-ending, Masc., Nom., singular on time ( lit., 'with'

 

time)

 

 

 

विद्यालयम् vidyālayam a-ending, Masc., Acc., singular to school

 

 

 

na Indeclinable particle of negation no/not

 

 

 

गच्छति gacchati root gamlṛ, gatau, laṭ, III, singular goes

 

 

 

एकदा ekadā eka+dā, an indeclinable denoting Once

 

a certain period of time

 

 

 

उद्याने udyāne a-ending, Neut., Loc., singular in the garden

 

 

 

एकम् ekam a-ending numeral, Masc., Acc., one

 

singular, qualifying 'kākam'

 

 

 

काकम् kākam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular raven/crow

 

 

 

अपश्यत् apaśyat root dṛś, laṅ, III, singular saw

 

 

 

तम् tam d-ending pronoun, masc., him

 

Acc., singular

 

 

 

क्रीडार्थम् krīḍārtham krīḍāyai iti krīḍārtham for playing

 

Avyayībhāva compound

 

(Indeclinable)

 

 

 

आह्वयत् āhvayat ā + hveñ, śabde,laṅ, III, singular called out

 

 

 

तदा tadā Indeclinable then

 

 

 

काकः काकः a-ending, Masc., Nom., singular the raven/ crow

 

 

 

अवदत् avadat vada vyaktāyāṃ vāci, laṅ, III, said

 

singular

 

 

 

मम mama asmad, d-ending, masc/fem/neut., my

 

pronoun, Gen., singular

 

 

 

समयः samayaḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., singular time

 

 

 

(+) अस्ति (na+)asti asa bhuvi, laṭ, III, singular is(not)

 

 

 

अनन्तरम् anantaram Indeclinable thereafter

 

 

 

शुकम् śukam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular parrot

 

 

 

दृष्ट्वा dṛṣṭvā root dṛś + primary suffix ktvā, having seen

 

particpial gerund, Indeclinable

 

 

 

अपि api an indeclinable also/even/as well as; sometimes has

 

other semantic nuances

 

 

 

सः + अपि saḥ + api euphonic changes occur he also

 

when visarga followingshort 'a'

 

is followed by short 'a'

 

 

 

+ अस्ति na + asti euphonic change –

 

a+a --> ā is not

 

 

 

इति + अवदत् iti + avadat euphonic change - i+a--> y thus said

 

 

 

एवम् evam Indeclinable thus, in this

 

Manner

 

 

 

एव eva Indeclinable only/ verily/

 

Certainly

 

 

 

एकाम् ekām ā-ending, fem., Acc.singular one qualifying 'pipīlikām'

 

 

 

पिपीलिकाम् pipīlikām ā-ending, fem., Acc.singular an ant

 

 

 

तदानीम् tadānīm Indeclinable At that time

 

 

 

सा sā d-ending pronoun, fem., she

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

एतत् etat d-ending pronoun, Neut., this

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

सर्वम् sarvam a-ending pronoun, Neut., all

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

श्रुत्वा śrutvā root śru + primary suffix ktvā, having heard

 

particpial gerund, Indeclinable

 

 

 

लज्जया lajjayā ā-ending, fem., Inst., singular with shame

 

 

 

अवनतमुखः avanatamukhaḥ avanataṃ mukhaṃ he with lowered face

 

yasya saḥ, bahuvrīhi

 

compound, a-ending

 

Masc., Nom.,singular

 

 

 

सर्वे sarve a-ending pronoun, Masc., all/everybody

 

Nom., plural

 

 

 

स्वस्वकार्येषु sva-svakāryeṣu svaṃ ca svaṃ ca svasvaṃ in one's own

 

svasvāni kāryāṇi work

 

svasvakāryāṇi, teṣu

 

 

 

निरताः + इति niratāḥ + iti euphonic change when visarga

 

following long vowel is followed

 

by vowel

 

 

 

निरताः niratāḥ, ā-ending, masc., engrossed in

 

Nom., singular,

 

qualifying 'sarve';

 

इति iti an indeclinable thus

 

 

 

 

 

अजानात् ajānāt jñā avabodhane, parasmai., knew/ realised

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

ततः tataḥ tad + suffix 'tas' in the sense from that

 

Of the ablative case;

 

indeclinable

 

 

 

प्रभृति prabhṛti Indeclinable, governs fifth case onwards

 

 

 

समयेन samayena a-ending, Masc., Inst., singular with time

 

(in mind)

 

 

 

गत्वा gatvā root gamlṛ + primary suffix ktvā, having gone

 

particpial gerund, Indeclinable

 

 

 

पठितुम् paṭhitum paṭha vyaktāyāṃ vāci + tumun to study

 

infinitive suffix, indeclinable

 

 

 

आरभत ārabhata. ā + root rabha, rābhasye, began

 

ātmane., laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

{In some place there lived a little boy. Being lazy, he would not go to School everyday on time. Once, he saw a raven in the garden. He beckoned that raven for play. Then the raven said 'I don't have time' (lit., 'my time is not there).Thereafter, seeing a parrot, the boy called him also for play. Then he (the parrot) also said thus - ' I don't have time'. Likewise, that boy called an ant also for playing. And then, she also said thus - 'I don't have time'. Hearing all this, his head(lit. 'face') hung in shame, the boy realized - 'everybody is busy in his/her own work'. Then onwards, he started going to school with time (in mind), and to study}.

 Dayāluḥ Siddhārthaḥ - KIND SIDDHĀRTHA

सिद्धार्थः शुद्धोदनस्य पुत्रः। तस्य मातुर्नाम मायावती । एकदा सिद्धार्थः उद्याने सञ्चरति स्म । तदा स बाणेन विद्धमेकं हंसमपश्यत् । हंसो वेदनया पीड्तोऽभवत्। तस्य वेदनां दृष्ट्वा सिद्धार्थो व्याकुलः समजायत । स हंसस्य समीपमगच्छत् । हंसस्य शरीरे स व्रणमपश्यत् । व्रणाद्रुधिरमस्रवत्। सिद्धार्थः पीडितं भयभीतं च हंसं वक्षस्यधारयत्। स हंसस्य शरीराद् बाणमपाकरोत्। हंसः शनैः शनैः स्वस्थोऽभूत्। अत्रान्तरे देवदत्तस्तत्रागच्छत् । सः सिद्धार्थमवदत् - सिद्धार्थ ! एष मम हंसः। अहं तं प्रति बाणमक्षिपम् । तेन स भूमावपतत् । अतः स मदीयोऽस्ति । एवं देवदत्तः सिद्धार्थेन सह कलहमकरोत् । तत उभौ राजसभां प्राविशताम् । देवदत्तो न्यायाधीशमभाषत । सिद्धार्थो मदीयं हंसमपाहरत् । सिद्धार्थश्चाकथयत् - देवदत्तो हंसं बाणेनाविध्यत्। स तस्य प्राणहरणे प्रायतत।यद्यहं देवदत्ताय हंसं यच्छामि तर्हि स तं हनिष्यति । न्यायाधीशोऽप्येतत्सर्वं श्रुत्वा अभाषत - प्राणाघातात् प्राणरक्षणं वरम् । सिद्धार्थो हंसस्य प्राणरक्षकः । अतः स एव हंसस्य स्वामी भवितुमर्हति । सर्वे जना निर्णयं श्रुत्वा अमोदन्त ।

 

 

 

siddhārthaḥ śuddhodanasya putraḥ. tasya māturnāma māyāvatī. ekadā siddhārthaḥ udyāne sañcarati sma. tadā sa bāṇena viddhamekaṃ haṃsamapaśyat. haṃso vedanayā pīḍito'bhavat. tasya vedanāṃ dṛṣṭvā siddhārtho vyākulaḥ samajāyata. sa haṃsasya samīpamagacchat. haṃsasya śarīre sa vraṇam apaśyat. vraṇādrudhiramasravat. siddhārthaḥ pīḍitaṃ bhayabhītaṃ ca haṃsaṃ vakṣasyadhārayat. sa haṃsasya śarīrād bāṇamapākarot. haṃsaḥ śanaiḥ śanaiḥ svastho'bhūt. atrāntare devadattastatrāgacchat. saḥ siddhārthamavadat - siddhārtha ! eṣa mama haṃsaḥ. ahaṃ taṃ prati bāṇamakṣipam. tena sa bhūmāvapatat. ataḥ sa madīyo'sti. evaṃ devadattaḥ siddhārthena saha kalahamakarot. tataḥ ubhau rājasabhāṃ prāviśatām. devadatto nyāyādhīśamabhāṣata. siddhārtho madīyaṃ haṃsamapāharat. siddhārthaścākathayat devadatto haṃsaṃ bāṇenāvidhyat. sa tasya prāṇaharaṇe prāyatata. yadyahaṃ devadattāya haṃsaṃ yacchāmi tarhi sa taṃ haniṣyati. nyāyādhīśo'pyetat sarvaṃ śrutvā abhāṣata - prāṇāghātāt prāṇarakṣaṇaṃ varam. siddhārtho haṃsasya prāṇarakṣakaḥ. ataḥ sa eva haṃsasya svāmī bhavitumarhati. sarve janā nirṇayaṃ śrutvā amodanta.

 

 

 

Word Transliteration Technical information Meaning

 

 

 

सिद्धार्थः siddhārthaḥ siddhaḥ arthaḥ yena saḥ One who has a bahuvrīhi compound; realised his goal:

 

a-ending, masc., Nom., name of a person

 

singular

 

 

 

शुद्धोदनस्य śuddhodanasya śuddhm odanam yasya saḥ, of of śuddhodana tasya a bahuvrīhi compound; whose food is pure;

 

name of a person; a-ending,

 

masc., Gen., singular

 

 

 

पुत्रः putraḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., singular son

 

 

 

तस्य tasya d-ending, pronoun, masc., Nom., his

 

singular

 

 

 

मातुः mātuḥ ṛ-endng, fem., Gen., singular Mother's

 

 

 

नाम nāma n-endng, neuter, Nom., singular name

 

 

 

मायावती māyāvatī māyā asti asyāḥ iti māyāvatī- name of a

 

māyā + vatup; ā -ending, fem., person

 

nom., singular

 

 

 

एकदा ekadā eka+suffix dā, indeclinable Once

 

 

 

उद्याने udyāne a-ending, neuter, Loc., singular in the garden

 

 

 

सञ्चरति स्म sañcarati sma sam+car,laṭ, third Person, strolled/

 

singular was strolling

 

along with 'sma', the 'laṭ' usage

 

comes to denote the past tense

 

 

 

तदा tadā an indeclinable referring to a Then

 

particular period of time

 

 

 

सः sa d-ending pronoun, Masc., Nom. he

 

singular

 

 

 

बाणेन bāṇena a-ending, masc., Inst., singular with an arrow

 

 

 

विद्धमेकम् viddhamekam viddham + ekam

 

 

 

विद्धम् viddham vyadh+ primary suffix kta, pierced/ hurt

 

a-ending masc., Accusative,

 

singular,qualifying 'haṃsam'.

 

 

 

एकम् ekam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular one

 

qualifying 'haṃsam'.

 

 

 

हंसमपश्यत् haṃsamapaśyat haṃsam + apaśyat

 

 

 

हंसम् haṃsam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular the swan

 

 

 

अपश्यत् apaśyat root dṛś, parasmai., laṅ, saw

 

Third Person,singular

 

 

 

हंसो वेदनया haṃso vedanayā haṃsaḥ + vedanayā

 

 

 

हंसः haṃsaḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., singular the swan

 

 

 

वेदनया vedanayā ā-ending, Fem., Inst., singular with pain

 

 

 

पीडितोऽभवत् pīḍito'bhavat pīḍitaḥ + abhavat

 

 

 

पीडितः pīḍitaḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., singular suffering/

 

qualifying 'haṃsaḥ' tormented

 

 

 

अभवत् abhavat root bhū,parasmai. laṅ, happened/

 

Third Person,singular was /became

 

 

 

तस्य tasya d-ending, masc., Gen., singular, his

 

III Person pronoun,

 

referring to 'haṃsaḥ'

 

 

 

वेदनां दृष्ट्वा vedanāṃ dṛṣṭvā vedanām + dṛṣṭvā

 

 

 

वेदनाम् vedanām ā-ending, Fem., Acc., singular the pain

 

 

 

दृष्ट्वा dṛṣṭvā root dṛś + primary suffix ktvā, having seen

 

particpial gerund, Indeclinable

 

 

 

व्याकुलः vyākulaḥ vi+ākulaḥ, ā-ending, masc., agitated/disturbed

 

Nom., singular, qualifying

 

siddhārthaḥ

 

 

 

समजायत samajāyata sam+jani prādurbhāve, became

 

ātmane, laṅ Third Person,

 

singular

 

 

 

हंसस्य haṃsasya a-ending, masc., Gen., singular, of the swan

 

 

 

समीपम् samīpaming a-ending, m/f/n, Acc., singular near, in the

 

proximity

 

 

 

अगच्छत् agacchat gamlṛ, gatau, laṅ, III, singular went

 

 

 

शरीरे śarīre a-ending, neut., Loc., singular in/ on the

 

Body

 

 

 

व्रणम् vraṇam a-ending, neut.m acc., singular injury/wound

 

 

 

व्रणाद्रुधिरम् vraṇādrudhiram vraṇād + rudhiram

 

 

 

व्रणात् vraṇāt a-ending, neut.m Abl., singular from the

 

Injury

 

 

 

रुधिरम् rudhiram a-ending, neut.m Nom., singular blood

 

 

 

अस्रवत् asravat root sru sravaṇe,laṅ, III, singular oozed

 

 

 

पीडितम् pīḍitam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular suffering/

 

qualifyng 'haṃsam' tormented

 

 

 

भयभीतम् bhayabhītam bhayena bhītaḥ, tam, a tatpuruṣa frightened

 

compound, a-ending, masc., Acc.,

 

singular qualifyng 'haṃsam'

 

 

 

ca Indeclinable. A collective and /also/as well as conjunction conjunction primarily

 

meaning 'and'

 

 

 

वक्षस्यधारयत् vakṣasy- vakṣasi + adhārayat

 

Adhārayat

 

 

 

वक्षसि vakṣasi s-ending, neut., Loc., on to one's chest

 

Singular

 

 

 

अधारयत् adhārayat root dhṛ, dhāraṇapoṣaṇayoḥ, held

 

parasmai, laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

शरीरात् śarīrāt a-ending, neut., Abl., singular from the

 

Body

 

 

 

बाणम् bāṇam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular the arrow

 

 

 

अपाकरोत् apākarot apa+ā+ḍukṛñ, karaṇe, removed

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

शनैः शनैः śanaiḥ śanaiḥ Indeclinable, adverb gradually, slowly

 

 

 

स्वस्थः svasthaḥ svasmin tiṣṭhatīti normal self

 

 

 

अभूत् abhūt root bhū,parasmai. luṅ, happened/

 

Third Person,singular was/became

 

 

 

अत्रान्तरे atrāntare Indeclinable In the meanwhile

 

 

 

देवदत्तः devadattaḥ devena dattaḥ, god-given: name of tatpuruṣa comp.; a person

 

a-ending, masc.,

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

तत्र tatra an indeclinable There

 

 

 

आगच्छत् āgacchat ā +gamlṛ, gatau, laṅ, III, singular came

 

 

 

सिद्धार्थम् Siddhārtha m a-ending, masc., Acc., (to)Siddhārtha

 

singular

 

 

 

अवदत् avadat root vada vyaktāyām vāci, said

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

सिद्धार्थ ! siddhārtha ! a-ending, masc., Vocative, singular

 

 

 

एषः eṣaḥ t-ending, III Person pronoun, this

 

masc., nom., singular,

 

referring to 'haṃsaḥ'

 

 

 

मम mama d-ending, I Person pronoun my

 

common for all genders, Gen.,

 

singular

 

 

 

अहम् ahaṃ d-ending, I Person pronoun I

 

common for all genders, Nom.,

 

singular

 

 

 

तम् tam d-ending, III Person Pronoun, him

 

masc., Acc., singular

 

 

 

प्रति prati indeclinable governing towards

 

Accusative case

 

 

 

बाणम् bāṇam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular the arrow

 

 

 

अक्षिपम् akṣipam root kṣipa, kkṣepe, parasmai., shot

 

laṅ, I Person, singular

 

 

 

तेन tena d-ending, III Person Pronoun, by it (the masc., Inst., singular, arrow)

 

referring to 'bāṇa'

 

 

 

स भूमावपतत् sa bhūmāvapatat saḥ + bhūmau + apatat

 

 

 

भूमौ bhūmau i-ending, fem., locative, on the earth

 

Singular

 

 

 

अपतत् apatat patlṛ , gatau, parasmai.,laṅ, III, fell down singular

 

 

 

अतः ataḥ indeclinable Hence

 

 

 

मदीयः madīyaḥ mama ayamiti madīyaḥ, my/ mine

 

secondary suffix added to asmad;

 

a-ending, masc., Nom., singular,

 

qualifying ' haṃsaḥ’

 

 

 

अस्ति asti root asa bhuvi, parasmai.,laṭ, is

 

III, singular

 

 

 

एवम् evam Indeclinable Thus

 

 

 

सिद्धार्थेन siddhārthena a-ending, masc., Inst., singular with

 

Siddhārtha

 

 

 

सह saha Indeclinable along with

 

 

 

कलहम् kalaham a-ending, masc., Acc., quarrel

 

Singular

 

 

 

अकरोत् akarot ḍukṛñ karaṇe, parasmai., did

 

laṭ, III, singular

 

 

 

ततः tataḥ Indeclinable thereafter

 

 

 

उभौ ubhau a-ending, masc., both

 

Nom., Always dual

 

 

 

राजसभां rājasabhām ā-ending, fem., to the royal court

 

Acc., singular

 

 

 

प्राविशताम् prāviśatām pra + viś, parasmai., entered laṅ, III, dual

 

 

 

न्यायाधीशम् nyāyādhīśam nyāyasya ādhīśaḥ tam, the upholder a-ending, masc., Acc., of justice

 

singular

 

 

 

अभाषत abhāṣata bhāṣa, vyaktāyām vāci,ātmane, spoke

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

मदीयम् madīyam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular, my/mine

 

qualifying ' haṃsam’

 

 

 

अपाहरत् apāharat apa+hṛñ haraṇe, parasmai., took away laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

अकथयत् akathayat kath, vākyaprabandhe, told/said/spoke up

 

parasmai., laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

बाणेन bāṇenā a-ending, masc., Inst., singular with arrow

 

 

 

अविध्यत् avidhyat vyadh, tāḍane, parasmai., injured

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

प्राणहरणे prāṇaharaṇe prāṇānām haraṇam, in taking away life

 

prāṇaharaṇam tasmin;

 

a-ending, neut.,loc., singular

 

 

 

प्रायतत prāyatata pra+ yati, prayatne, ātmane, attempted

 

laṅ, III, singular

 

 

 

यदि yadi Indeclinable if

 

 

 

देवदत्ताय devadattāya a-ending, masc., Dat., singular for

 

Devadatta

 

 

 

यच्छामि yacchāmi dāṇ dāne, parasmai., give

 

laṭ, I, singular

 

 

 

तर्हि tarhi Indeclinable then

 

 

 

हनिष्यति haniṣyati hana, hiṃsāyām, parasmai, will kill

 

laṭ,III, singular

 

 

 

न्यायाधीशः nyāyādhīśaḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., the upholder of singular justice

 

 

 

अपि api an indeclinable also/even/as well as sometimes has other semantic

 

Nuances

 

 

 

एतत् etat d-ending, pronoun, neut., this

 

Acc., singular

 

 

 

सर्वम् sarvam a-ending, pronoun, neut., all

 

Acc., singular

 

 

 

श्रुत्वा śrutvā śru, śravaṇe, + ktvā - having heard

 

participial gerund;

 

indeclinable

 

 

 

प्राणाघातात् prāṇāghātāt prāṇānām āghātaḥ, quelling

 

prāṇāghātāḥ, tasmāt,

 

a-ending, masc., Abl.,sing.

 

 

 

प्राणरक्षणम् prāṇarakṣaṇam prāṇānām rakṣaṇam, prāṇa- saving

 

rakṣaṇam,tasmāt, a-ending,

 

neut., Abl.,singular

 

 

 

वरम् varam Indeclinable better

 

 

 

प्राणरक्षकः prāṇarakṣakaḥ prāṇānām rakṣakaḥ, prāṇa- life-saver

 

rakṣakaḥ, a-ending, masc.,

 

Nom.,singular

 

 

 

एव eva Indeclinable only/ alone/verily/

 

Certainly

 

 

 

स्वामी svāmī n-ending, masc., owner/claimant

 

nom., singular

 

 

 

भवितुम् bhavitum bhū sattāyām, + tumun, to be

 

infinitive, indeclinable

 

 

 

अर्हति arhati arha pūjāyām, parasmai., deserves

 

laṭ,III, singular

 

 

 

सर्वे sarve a-ending pronoun, neuter, All/ everyone

 

Nominative, plural

 

 

 

जनाः janāḥ a-ending masc., people

 

Nominative, plural

 

 

 

निर्णयम् nirṇayam a-ending masc., decision,

 

Acc., singular verdict

 

 

 

अमोदन्त amodanta muda, harṣe, ātmane, were happy/

 

laṅ, III, plural exulted

 

 

 

 

 

Siddhārtha is the son of Śuddhodana. His mother's name is Māyāvatī. Once, Siddhārtha was strolling in the garden. Thence, he saw a swan injured by an arrow. The swan was writhing in pain. Seeing his pain, Siddhārtha became agitated. He approached the swan. He noticed the wound in the swan's body. Blood oozed from the wound. Siddhārtha held the injured and terrified swan close to his chest. He removed the shaft from the swan's body. The swan slowly and steadily became his normal self. In the meanwhile, Devadatta came there. He said to Siddhārtha - Siddhārtha ! This is my swan. I aimed the arrow at him. That is how he fell to the ground. Therefore, he is mine. In this manner, Devadatta quarrelled with Siddhārtha. Thereafter, both entered the royal court. Devadatta appealed to the upholder of justice(king) - Siddhārtha took away my swan. Siddhārtha also spoke up - Devadatta injured the swan with the arrow. His efforts were directed on taking away his life. If I were to entrust Devadatta with the swan, he would surely kill him. The king also, having heard all this, spoke - Saving life is nobler than taking life. Siddhārtha is the saviour of the swan's life. Hence, he only deserves to be the owner of the swan. On hearing this verdict, all the people were delighted.

 Buddhimān Kākaḥ - The Clever Crow

 एकदा एकत्र एकः काक आसीत् । स पिपासया पीडितः सर्वत्र जलस्यान्वेषणम् अकरोत् । कुत्रापि जलं नासीत् । पुनः सः इतस्ततः भ्रमति स्म । अन्ते एकत्र स एकं घटमपश्यत् । तस्मिन् घटे किञ्चिज्जलमासीत् । परन्तु स जलं पातुं न अशक्नोत् । घटाभ्यन्तरे जलं नितान्तं नीचैः आसीत् । काकस्य चञ्चुः तत्र यावत् न प्राप्नोति स्म । तदानीं काक एकमुपायं विचिन्त्य बहून् शिलाखण्डान् आनयत् । घटे चैकैकं शिलाखण्डं न्यक्षिपत् । जलं क्रमशः उपरि आगच्छत् । तदा काकस्य असीमः आनन्दः अभवत् । काकः सन्तोषेण जलम् अपिबत् । अनन्तरं स्वनीडं गत्वा सुखेन कालमनयत् । अत एवोक्तम् - बुद्धिमान् लभते कार्यम् ।

 ekadā ekatra ekaḥ kāka āsīt . sa pipāsayā pīḍitaḥ sarvatra jalasyānveṣaṇam akarot . kutrāpi jalaṃ nāsīt . punaḥ saḥ itastataḥ bhramati sma . ante ekatra sa ekaṃ ghaṭamapaśyat . tasmin ghaṭe kiñcijjalamāsīt . parantu sa jalaṃ pātuṃ na aśaknot . ghaṭābhyantare jalaṃ nitāntaṃ nīcaiḥ āsīt . kākasya cañcuḥ tatra yāvat na prāpnoti sma. tadānīṃ kāka ekamupāyaṃ vicintya bahūn śilākhaṇḍān ānayat . ghaṭe caikaikaṃ nyakṣipat . jalaṃ kramaśaḥ upari āgacchat . tadā kākasya asīmaḥ ānandaḥ abhavat . kākaḥ santoṣeṇa jalamapibat . anantaraṃ svanīḍaṃ gatvā sukhena kālamanayat . ata evoktam - buddhimān labhate kāryam.

 Word Transliteration Technical information Meaning

 एकदा ekadā eka + suffix dā, indeclinable Once

 एकत्र ekatra eka + suffix tral indeclinable in a certain place

 एकः ekaḥ a-ending, masc., nom., singular one

 काक आसीत् kāka āsīt kākaḥ + āsīt

 काकः kākaḥ a-ending, masc., nom., singular Crow

 आसीत् āsīt asa bhuvi, parasmai.,laṅ, III, was singular

 स पिपासया sa pipāsayā saḥ + pipāsayā

 सः saḥ d-ending, III Person, pronoun, he masc., nom., singular

 

 

 

पीडितः pīḍitaḥ root pīḍ, + kta, a-ending, sufering/tormented

 

masc., Nom., singular

 

 

 

सर्वत्र sarvatra sarva+ suffix tral, indeclinable Everywhere

 

 

 

जलस्यान्वेषणम् jalasyānveṣaṇam jalasya + anveṣaṇam

 

 

 

जलस्य jalasya a-ending, neuter, Genitive, of water

 

singular

 

 

 

अन्वेषणम् anveṣaṇam a-ending, neuter, Acc., singular search

 

 

 

अकरोत् akarot ḍukṛñ karaṇe, parasmai.,laṅ, did

 

III, singular

 

 

 

कुत्रापि kutrāpi kim+suffix tral = kutra, indeclinable anywhere/

 

kutra + api indeclinable somewhere ('cit', 'cana' or 'api' when added to

 

different forms of 'kim', convey the

 

sense of something unspecific

 

or general in nature)

 

 

 

जलं नासीत् jalaṃ nāsīt jalam + na+āsīt

 

 

 

जलम् jalam a-ending, Neut., Nom., singular water

 

 

 

na Indeclinable particle of negation no/not

 

 

 

पुनः punaḥ indeclinable again, repeatedly

 

 

 

इतस्ततः itastataḥ itaḥ+tataḥ; Indeclinable here and there

 

 

 

भ्रमति स्म bhramati sma bhrama, parasmai, laṭ, wandered

 

III Person, singular;

 

along with 'sma', the 'laṭ'

 

usage comes to denote

 

the past tense

 

 

 

अन्ते ante a-ending, masc., in the end

 

locative, singular

 

Some take this as

 

an indeclinable

 

 

 

स एकं sa ekaṃ saḥ+ekam

 

 

 

एकं घटम् ekaṃ ghaṭam ekam+ghaṭam, one clay pot

 

object of the verb

 

apaśyat

 

 

 

घटमपश्यत् ghaṭamapaśyat ghaṭam + apaśyat

 

 

 

अपश्यत् apaśyat root dṛś, parasmai., laṅ, saw

 

Third Person,singular

 

 

 

तस्मिन् tasmin d-ending, pronoun, masc. in that

 

loc., singular, qualifying

 

'ghaṭe'

 

 

 

घटे ghaṭe a-ending, masc. in (that) pot

 

loc., singular,

 

 

 

किञ्चिज्जलमासीत् kiñcij- kiñcit+jalam+āsīt was some water jalamāsīt

 

 

 

किञ्चित् kiñcit kim, m-ending, Neut., some

 

Nom., singular +

 

indefinite particle 'cit'; qualifyng 'jalam'

 

( 'cit', 'cana' or 'api' when

 

added to different forms of 'kim',

 

convey the sense of something

 

unspecific or general in nature)

 

 

 

जलम् jalam a-ending, Neut., Nom. water

 

singular; object of the verb āsīt

 

 

 

परन्तु parantu param+tu, indeclinable But

 

 

 

स जलं sa jalaṃ saḥ + jalaṃ

 

 

 

जलं पातुं न jalaṃ pātuṃ na jalam+ pātum + na

 

 

 

जलम् jalam a-ending, Neut., Acc., water

 

singular

 

 

 

पातुम् pātum root pā pāne, + infinitive to drink

 

suffix'tumun'; indeclinable

 

 

 

अशक्नोत् aśaknot root śaklṛ,śaktau,svādi group could/was

 

parasmai., laṅ, III, singular able

 

 

 

घटाभ्यन्तरे ghaṭābhy- ghaṭasya abhyantaram, inside the pot

 

antare tasmin

 

 

 

नितान्तम् nitāntam indeclinable absolutely/extremely

 

 

 

नीचैः nīcaiḥ indeclible low

 

 

 

काकस्य kākasya a-ending, masc., of the crow

 

Gen., singular

 

 

 

चञ्चुः cañcuḥ u-ending, Masc., beak

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

तत्र यावत् tatra yāvat a combination of till there

 

two indeclinables

 

resulting in a phrase

 

 

 

प्राप्नोति स्म prāpnoti sma pra+āplṛ vyāptau, reached

 

parasmai, laṭ, III Person,

 

singular; along with 'sma',

 

the 'laṭ' usage comes to

 

denote the past tense

 

 

 

तदानीम् tadānīm Indeclinable In that situation

 

 

 

काक एकमुपायम् kāka ekamupāyam kākaḥ+ekam+upāyam

 

 

 

उपायम् upāyam a-ending, masc., a plan/scheme/ Acc., singular remedy

 

 

 

विचिन्त्य vicintya vi+ root citi cintāyām, + lyap having well thought

 

substitute for ktvā, out

 

participial gerund; indeclinable

 

 

 

बहून् bahūn u-ending, masc., Acc., plural lots of

 

 

 

शिलाखण्डान् śilā- śilānām khaṇḍāḥ, tān pieces of stones/ khaṇḍān tatpuruṣa compound, pebbles

 

a-ending, masc., Acc.,

 

plural, object of the verb

 

ānayat

 

 

 

आनयत् ānayat ā+root nīñ prāpaṇe, parasmai., brought

 

laṅ,Third Person,singular

 

 

 

चैकैकम् caikaikam ca+eka+ekam and, each/one- by - one

 

 

 

शिलाखण्डम् śilā- a-ending, masc., Acc., pebble

 

khaṇḍam singular, object of the verb

 

nyakṣipat

 

 

 

न्यक्षिपत् nyakṣipat ni+kṣipa kṣepe, parasmai., dropped

 

laṅ,Third Person,singular

 

 

 

क्रमशः kramaśaḥ indeclinable gradually

 

 

 

उपरि upari indeclinable up

 

 

 

आगच्छत् āgacchat ā +gamlṛ gatau,parasmai., came

 

laṅ,Third Person,singular

 

 

 

तदा tadā indeclnable then/at that time

 

 

 

असीमः asīmaḥ na vidyate sīmā asya, boundless

 

Nañ tatpuruṣa compound;

 

a-ending, masc., Nom.,

 

singular; adjective

 

of ānandaḥ

 

 

 

आनन्दः ānandaḥ a-ending, masc., Nom., singular joy

 

 

 

अभवत् abhavat root bhū sattāyām, parasmai. laṅ, was

 

Third Person,singular

 

 

 

सन्तोषेण santoṣeṇa a-ending, masc., Inst., singular happily

 

 

 

जलमपिबत् jalamapibat jalam+apibat

 

 

 

अपिबत् apibat root pā, pāne,parasmai. drank

 

laṅ, Third Person, singular

 

 

 

अनन्तरम् anantaram Indeclinable Thereafter

 

 

 

स्वनीडम् svanīḍaṃ svasya nīḍaṃ, svanīḍam own nest

 

tatpuruṣa compound,

 

a-ending, Neut., Acc.,

 

singular

 

 

 

गत्वा gatvā root gamlṛ gatau + ktvā, having gone

 

participial gerund;

 

indeclinable

 

 

 

सुखेन sukhena a-ending, neut., Inst., with comfort

 

Singular adverb of anayat

 

 

 

कालमनयत् kālamanayat kālam + anayat

 

 

 

कालम् kālam a-ending, masc., Acc., singular time

 

object of the verb anayat

 

 

 

अनयत् anayat nīñ prāpaṇe, parasmai., spent

 

laṅ,Third Person,singular

 

 

 

अत एवोक्तम् ata evoktam ataḥ + eva+ uktam

 

 

 

अतः अतः Indeclinable Therefore/ for this reason

 

 

 

एव एव Indeclinable only

 

 

 

उक्तम् uktam root vaca+kta (it is) said

 

(primary suffix),

 

a-ending, Neut.,

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

बुद्धिमान् buddhimān buddhiḥ asya asti, clever

 

buddhi+secondary

 

suffix matup; t-ending, masc.,

 

Nom., singular

 

 

 

लभते labhate ḍulabhaṣ, prāptau, gets/achieves/ ātmane., laṭ, III Person, accomplishes

 

singular

 

 

 

कार्यम् kāryam a-ending, Neut., III, singular task/ goal

 Once, in a certain place, was a crow. He, being tormented by thirst, searched everywhere for water. There was no water anywhere. Again, he wandered here and there. In the end, somewhere, he saw a clay-pot. In that pot, was a little water. But, he could not drink the water. Inside the pot, the water was at an extremely low level. The crow's beak did not reach till there. In that situation, the crow, having thought out a plan, fetched lots of pebbles. One by one, he dropped each pebble into the pot. The water gradually rose up. Then the crow's joy was boundless. He happily drank the water; thereafter, having returned to his nest, spent his time in comfort. For this reason is it said - the clever accomplishes his goal!

 

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