Halsandhiḥ/ Vyañjanasandhiḥ

Euphonic Changes in joining of Consonants (Combination of Consonants)

The euphonic Changes in consonants, when they are combined, occur in many ways. Let us look into a few cases with examples-

1. जश्त्व -jaśtva - Substitution by letters falling within the pratyāhāra "jaś" - ( झलां जश् झशि)

i) विद्युत् + दीपः = विद्युद्दीपः vidyut + dīpaḥ = vidyuddīpaḥ

विद्यु त्+द् ईपः विद्युद्+द् ईपः vidyu t+d īpaḥ vidyud+d īpaḥ

विद्युद्+दीपः vidyud+dīpaḥ

विद्युद्दीपः vidyuddīpaḥ

ii) वाक्+दहनः = वाग्दहनः vāk+dahanaḥ = vāgdahanaḥ

वा क् + द् अहनःk + d ahanaḥ

वाग्द्अहनःgdahanaḥ

वाग्दहनः vāgdahanaḥ

iii) अप्+दीयताम् = अब्दीयताम् ap+dīyatām = abdīyatām

प्+द् ईयताम् ap+d īyatām

ब्+द् ईयताम् ab+d īyatām

अब्दीयताम् abdīyatām

The euphonic changes in the examples above, are in accordance with the aphorism jhalāṃ jaś jhaśi. The acronym "jhal"stands for all the consonants leaving out the semi-vowels, "jhaś" represents the third and fifth consonants of each of the five groups (from the gutterals through the labials), while "jaś" is the short form for the third letters alone of the five groups of consonants.

The aphorism, thus, enjoins that the letters of "jaś" be the respective substitutes for the letters of "jhal" that are immediately followed by the letters of "jhaś".

EXERCISE

Join and effect the euphonic changes in the following -

वाक्+भूषणम् =--------------- vāk+bhūṣaṇam =-------------------------------सम्पत्+भासते=------------------------- sampat+bhāsate = ---------------------------

जलमुच्+ध्वनिः = --------------------------- jalamuc+dhvaniḥ =----------------------------स्मात्+धीरता =------------------------------ tasmāt+dhīratā =------------------------------

ककुभ्+दिक् =----------------------------- kakubh+dik =-----------------------------

क्षुध्+धीमताम् =------------------- kṣudh+dhīmatām =-------------------

भगवत्+भक्तिः =-------------------- bhagavat+bhaktiḥ =--------------------

1.1. चर्त्व- cartva - Substitution by letters falling within the pratyāhāra "car" (खरि च)

मरुत्+ पतिः = मरुत्पतिः marut+ patiḥ = marutpatiḥ

अस्मत्+प्राणः = अस्मत्प्राणः asmat+prāṇaḥ asmatprāṇaḥ

तादृक्+कर्म = तादृक्कर्म tādṛk+karma = tādṛkkarma

अनुष्टुप् + छन्दः=अनुष्टुप्छन्दः anuṣṭup + chandaḥ=anuṣṭupchandaḥ

The aphorism khari ca, which is an exception to jhalāṃ jaś jhaśi, enjoins that the consonants represented by the abbreviaton "car"( चर्), alone would substitute the letters of "jhal" falling at the end of a word-stem in the event of their being immediately followed by any letter of the "khar"(खर्) group. The "khar" includes the first two consonants of the five classes beginning "k"( the gutterals through the labials), as also the sibilants ś, ṣ and s. The first consonants of the fve classes form the "car".

EXERCISE

Join and effect the euphonic changes in the following -

विपद्+प्रतीकारः =------------------- vipad+pratīkāraḥ =-----------

उद्+पातयति = --------------------------- ud+pātayati = -----------------

उद्+प्रेरणा = --------------------------------- ud+preraṇā = -----------------

उद्+सहते =---------------------- ud+sahate =----------------------

सम्यग्+शास्ति =----------------------- samyag+śāsti =-----------------------

ईदृग्+कार्यम् = -------------------------------- īdṛg+kāryam = ----------------

2. श्चुत्व - ścutva - Substitution by the letter ś and by those of the ca ( palatal) class.

a) स् + श् = श्श s + ś = śśa

स् + च् = श्च् s + c = śc

स् + छ् = श्छ् s + ch = śch

i) शिशुस् शेते ---> शिशु स् + श् एते ---> शिशु श् + श् एते ---> शिशुश् +शेते = शिशुश्शेते ।

śiśus śete ---> śiśu s + ś ete ---> śiśu ś + ś ete ---> śiśuś +śete = śiśuśśete.

ii) मनस् चपलम् ---> मन स् + च् अपलम् ---> मन श् + च् अपलम् ---> मनश् + चपलम् = मनश्चपलम् ।

manas capalam ---> mana s + c apalam ---> mana ś + c apalam ---> manaś + capalam = manaścapalam.

iii) श्रेयस् छत्रम् ---> श्रेय स् + छ् अत्रम् ---> श्रेय श् +छ् अत्रम् ---> श्रेयश्+छत्रम् = श्रेयश्छत्रम्

b) त् + च् = च्च् t + c = cc

द् + ज् = ज्ज् d + j = jj

त्+ श् = च्श् t+ ś = cś

i) सत् चित् ---> त् + च् इत् ---> च् + च् त्---> च्+ चित् = सच्चित् ।

sat cit ---> sa t + c it ---> sa c + c it---> sac+ cit = saccit.

ii) सुहृद् जगाम --->सुहृ द्+ ज् अगाम ---> सुहृज्+ज् अगाम ---> सुहृज्+जगाम=सुहृज्जगाम।

suhṛd jagāma --->suhṛ d+ j agāma ---> suhṛj+j agāma ---> suhṛj+jagāma =suhṛjjagāma

iii) भगवत् शक्तिः ---> भगव त् + श् अक्तिः ---> भगव च् + श् अक्तिः ---> भगवच् +शक्तिः = भगवच्शक्तिः ।

bhagavat śaktiḥ ---> bhagava t + ś aktiḥ ---> bhagava c + ś aktiḥ ---> bhagavac + śaktiḥ = bhagavacśaktiḥ.

The changes in the above examples are effected by the aphorism stoścunā ścuḥ (स्तोश्चुना श्चुः) . According to this rule, when the consonant sor any of the consonants of the (dental) group t combine with the consonant ś or any of the letters of the ca (palatal) group, then the latter are the respective substitutes for the former.

As far as the example bhagavacśaktiḥ is concerned, an alternate form bhagavacchaktiḥ (भगवच्छक्तिः) is also possible by the rule śaścho'ṭi (शश्छोऽटि) which holds that the sibilant ś immediately preceded by any consonant included in the pratyāhāra jhay andalsoimmediately followed by any letter falling within the pratyāhāraaṭ, can be optionally substituted by the consonant ch.

EXERCISE

Join and effect the euphonic changes in the following -

विद्युत् + शक्तिः = ------------------------ vidyut + śaktiḥ = ----------------------

सत्+ चरितम् = ---------------- sat+ caritam = ----------------

पुनः+चित्तम् = ------------------------------ punaḥ+cittam = ---------------------

घनस् + श्यामः =------------------- ghanas + śyāmaḥ =-------------------

चित्+शुद्धिः =------------------ cit+śuddhiḥ =------------------

सुहृत् + जनः =-------------- suhṛt + janaḥ =--------------

गुणान्+ जानाति=-------------- guṇān+ jānāti=--------------

बृहत्+छत्रम् =------------------ bṛhat+chatram =------------------

3. ष्टुत्व - ṣṭutva - Substitution by the letter and by those of the ṭa ( cerebral ) class

a) i) (बालः षष्ठः) ---> बाल स् + ष् अष्ठः ----> बाल ष् + षष्ठः= बालष्षष्ठः ।

(bālaḥ ṣaṣṭhaḥ) ---> bāla s + ṣ aṣṭhaḥ ----> bāla ṣ + ṣaṣṭhaḥ = bālaṣṣaṣṭhaḥ

ii) (चतुः षष्टिः)---> चतु स् + ष् अष्टिः ---> चतुष् + षष्टिः ---> चतुष्षष्टिः ।

(catuḥ ṣaṣṭiḥ)---> catus + ṣ aṣṭiḥ ---> catuṣ + ṣaṣṭiḥ ---> catuṣṣaṣṭiḥ

iii) (धनुः ढक्का)---> धनु स् + ढ् अक्का ---> धनुष् + ढक्का = धनुष्ढक्का ।

(dhanuḥ ḍhakkā)---> dhanu s + ḍh akkā ---> dhanuṣ + ḍhakkā = dhanuṣḍhakkā

b) i) बृहत् + टीका ---> बृह त्+ ट् ईका ---> बृह ट्+ टीका = बृहट्टीका ।

bṛhat + ṭīkā ---> bṛha t+ ṭ īkā ---> bṛha ṭ+ ṭīkā = bṛhaṭṭīkā

ii) तत् डमरुः ---> त्+ड् अमरुः---> ड्+डमरुः = तड्डमरुः।

tat ḍamaruḥ ---> ta t+ḍ amaruḥ---> taḍ+ḍamaruḥ = taḍḍamaruḥ

iii) एतत् ढक्का ---> एत त्+ढ् अक्का---> एतढ्+ढक्का= एतढ्ढक्का ।

etat ḍhakkā ---> eta t+ḍh akkā---> etaḍh+ḍhakkā= etaḍhḍhakkā

iv) राजन् डयसे ---> राज न्+ड् अयसे ---> राजण्+डयसे = राजण्डयसे ।

rājan ḍayase ---> rāja n+ḍ ayase ---> rājaṇ+ḍayase = rājaṇḍayase

The changes in the above examples are effected by the aphorism ṣṭunā ṣṭuḥ (ष्टुना ष्टुः). According to this rule, when the consonant sor any of the consonants of the (dental) group ta combine with the consonant or any of the letters of the ṭa (cerebral) group, then the latter are the respective substitutes for the former.

An exception, however, is noted of the above rule in the aphorism toḥ ṣi (तोः षि) which prohibits the ṣṭutva of the dental ta group letters when any of them is followed by the sibilant .

Thus, in bṛhatṣakāraḥ (बृहत्षकारः) and sanṣaṣṭhaḥ (सन्षष्ठः), the t and n respectively are retained in their original state and are not changed to the corresponding cerebrals.

Moreover, said substitution by or any of the letters of the ṭa (cerebral) group, of the letter sor any of the consonants of the (dental) group t,except for the n ofnām, navati and nagarī (नाम्, नवति, नगरी),does not take place if a cerebral consonant of the ṭa group immediately precedes as the last letter of a pada. This proscription is provided for by the aphorism न पदान्ताट्टोरनाम् (na padāntāṭṭoranām) and the vārttikaअनाम्नवतिनगरीणामिति वाच्यम् (anāmnavatinagarīṇāmiti vācyam) thereon. Therefore, no changes occur in the forms ṣaṭ santaḥ (षट् सन्तः), ṣaṭ taruṇāḥ (षट् तरुणाः) etc., whereas, in ṣaṇṇām, ṣaṇṇavatiḥ and ṣaṇṇagaryaḥ (षण्णाम्, षण्णवतिः षण्णगर्यः), the n (न् )in each of the instances followingthe cerebral(ड्) of ṣaḍ is substituted by the corresponding cerebral (ण्), this operation being exempted from the bar.|

EXERCISE

Join and effect the euphonic changes in the following -

चतुरः + षष्ठः = --------------- caturaḥ + ṣaṣṭhaḥ = ---------------

घनास् + डयन्ते = --------- ghanās + ḍayante = ---------

तद्+ डयनम् = ---------------- tad+ ḍayanam = ----------------

उत्+ टङ्कनम् =----------------- ut+ ṭaṅkanam =-----------------

कतमः+टकारः = ---------------- katamaḥ+ṭakāraḥ = ----------------

स्याद्+ढक्का =------------------ syād+ḍhakkā =------------------

बृहत्+टङ्कनयन्त्रम् = ------------------ bṛhat+ṭaṅkanayantram = --------------------

4. अनुनासिकादेशः-anunāsikādeśaḥ - Substitution by the relevant nasal letter -

वाक्+ माधुर्यम् = वाङ्माधुर्यम् vāk+ mādhuryam = vāṅmādhuryam

जगत्+ महिमा = जगन्महिमा jagat+ mahimā = jaganmahimā

न्याय्यात् + मार्गात्= न्याय्यान्मार्गात् nyāyyāt + mārgāt= nyāyyānmārgāt

तद्+ = तन्न tad+ na= tanna

This change is effected by the aphorism yaro'nunāsike'nunāsiko vā (यरोऽनुनासिकेऽनुनासिको वा) according to which, the consonants falling within the yar pratyāhāra, if situated at the end of a pada, and if immediately followed by a nasal letter, get optionally substituted by their homogenous nasal letter. Since this is an optional rule, the forms without the substitution also find place.

EXERCISE

Join and effect the euphonic changes in the following -

चित्+मयः =--------------- cit+mayaḥ =---------------

जगत्+निवासः=-------- jagat+nivāsaḥ=--------

वाक्+नियमः=---------------- vāk+niyamaḥ=----------------

षड्+मुखः=-------------- ṣaḍ+mukhaḥ=--------------

तत्+नास्ति=-------------- tat+nāsti=--------------

5. पूर्वसवर्णादेशः-pūrvasavarṇādeśaḥ-Substitution by the letter homogenous to the prior -

उत्+स्थानम् ---> त्+स् थानम् ---> त् थ् थानम्=उत्थ्थानम्/उत्थानम्।(थकारस्य वैकल्पिको लोपः)

ut+sthānam ---> u t+s thānam ---> ut th thānam = utththānam/utthānam (Optional elision of th)

उत्+स्थितिः ---> त्+स् थितिः ---> त् थ् थितिः = उत्थ्थितिः/ उत्थितिः।(थकारस्य वैकल्पिको लोपः)

ut+sthitiḥ ---> ut+s thitiḥ ---> ut th thitiḥ = utththitiḥ/ utthitiḥ( Optional elision of th)

उत्+स्तम्भनम् ---> त्+स् तम्भनम् ---> उत् थ् तम्भनम् = उत्थम्भनम्/ उत्तम्भनम् । (वैकल्पिको लोपः)

ut+stambhanam ---> ut+s tambhanam ---> ut th tambhanam = utthambhanam/ uttambhanam(Optional elision)

This combinational change is sanctioned by the aphorism udaḥ sthāstambhoḥ pūrvasya (उदः स्थास्तम्भोः पूर्वस्य) according to which, the s of the different forms of the roots sthā and stambhpreceded by the prefix ud, is substituted by the letter homogenous to the prior d. In effect, the substitute is the letter th. Further, there is an optional elision of a jhar letter which is immediately followed by a homogenous jhar by the rule jharo jhari savarṇe (झरो झरि सवर्णे)Hence it is, that there are two forms of each instance - one without elision and one with it.

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

उद्+स्थातव्यम् =---------------------- ud+sthātavyam =----------------------

उत्+स्थापनम् = ------------------------ ut+sthāpanam = ----------------------

उत्+स्थम्भनीयम् =------------------------- ut+sthambhanīyam =-----------------

6.परसवर्णादेशः-parasavarṇādeśaḥ-Substitution by the letter homogenous to the subsequent -

तत्+लयः ---> ल्+लयः = तल्लयः tat+layaḥ ---> tal+layaḥ = tallayaḥ

अस्मद्+लोकः ---> अस्मल्+लोकः = अस्मल्लोकः asmad+lokaḥ ---> asmal+lokaḥ = asmallokaḥ

वनात् + लब्धम् ---> वनाल्+लब्धम् = वनाल्लब्धम् vanāt + labdham ---> vanāl+labdham = vanāllabdham

गृहात् + ललना ---> गृहाल्+ ललना=गृहाल्ललना gṛhāt + lalanā ---> gṛhāl+ lalanā = gṛhāllalanā

लोहात्+लवित्रम् --->लोहाल्+लवित्रम्=लोहाल्लवित्रम् lohāt+lavitram ---> lohāl+lavitram=lohāllavitram

वणिक्+हसति ---> वणिग् ह्सति =वणिगह्सति vaṇik+hasati ---> vaṇig hasati = vaṇighasati

षट् + हयाः ---> ड्+ हयाः = षढ्हयाः ṣaṭ + hayāḥ ---> ṣa + hayāḥ =

ṣaḍ-hayāḥ

तत्+हिमम् ---> द् + हिमम् = तद्हिमम् tat+himam ---> tad + himam = tad-himam

In the last three examples above, there is also an optional pūrvasavarṇādeśaḥ by the aphorism jhayo ho:'nyatarasyām (झयो होऽन्यतरस्याम्) which prescribes substitution by the homogenous prior, of the letter h (ह्) immediately following any letter of the jhay pratyāhāra. Thus, we also get the alternate forms वणिग्घसति

vaṇigghasati, षड्ढयाः ṣaḍḍhayāḥand तद्धिमम् taddhimam respectively. The letter h is homogenous to the fourth letter of each of the five groups of consonants.

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

तत् + हितम् =------------ tat + hitam =------------

षट् + हर्म्याणि = ------------ ṣaṭ + harmyāṇi = ------------

तद्+हि=------- tad+hi=-------

जगद्+हिताय=---------- jagad+hitāya=----------

अब्+हविः=------- ab+haviḥ=-------

सम्राट्+हरिः=------- samrāṭ+hariḥ=-------

भवद्+हितम्=------ bhavad+hitam=------

वषड्+हिताय=------- vaṣaḍ+hitāya=-------

7.तुगागमः - tugāgamaḥ - Augment of "tuk"

वृक्ष + छाया ---> वृक्ष्+ +छ् आया---> वृक्ष्++तुक्+छ् आया---> वृक्ष+त्+छाया---> वृक्ष+च्+छाया = वृक्षच्छाया

vṛkṣa + chāyā ---> vṛkṣ+ a+ch āyā---> vṛkṣ+a+tuk+ch āyā---> vṛkṣa+t+chāyā---> vṛkṣa+c+chāyā = vṛkṣacchāyā

संस्कृत+छात्रः--->संस्कृत+तुक्+छात्रः--->संस्कृत+त्+छात्रः--->संस्कृत+च्+छात्रः=संस्कृतच्छात्रः

saṃskṛta+chātraḥ--->saṃskṛta+tuk+chātraḥ--->saṃskṛta+t+chātraḥ---> saṃskṛta+c+chātraḥ=saṃskṛtacchātraḥ

अक्षर+छन्दः--->अक्षर+तुक्+छन्दः--->अक्षर+त्+छन्दः--->अक्षर+च्+छन्दः=अक्षरच्छन्दः

akṣara+chandaḥ--->akṣara+tuk+chandaḥ--->akṣara+t+chandaḥ---> akṣara+c+chandaḥ = akṣaracchandaḥ

मणि+छत्रम्--->मणि+तुक्+छत्रम्---> मणि+त्+छत्रम्--->मणि+च्+छत्रम्=मणिच्छत्रम्

maṇi+chatram--->maṇi+tuk+chatram---> maṇi+t+chatram---> maṇi+c+chatram = maṇicchatram

गुरु+छविः--->गुरु+तुक्+छविः--->गुरु+त्+छविः--->गुरु+च्+छविः=गुरुच्छविः

guru+chaviḥ--->guru+tuk+chaviḥ--->guru+t+chaviḥ--->guru+c+chaviḥ=gurucchaviḥ

+छविः---->+तुक्+छविः---->+त्+छविः--->+च्+छविः=ऋच्छविः

ṛ+chaviḥ---->ṛ+tuk+chaviḥ---->ṛ+t+chaviḥ--->ṛ+c+chaviḥ = ṛcchaviḥ

In the above examples, the short vowels a, i, u and (, , , ) get tuk augment when followed immediately by the letterCh by the aphorism Che ca (छे च).Oftheaugment, only the t remains which then gets converted to c by stoḥ ścunā ścuḥ.

This provision for "tuk" augment has optional applicaton to long vowels followed by "ch" also, when they form the end of a pada, by the aphorism padāntādvā (पदान्ताद्वा). Thus,

मालिनी+छन्दः---> मालिनी+त्+छन्दः----> मालिनीच्छन्दः अथवा मालिनीछन्द एव।

mālinī+chandaḥ---> mālinī+t+chandaḥ----> mālinīcchandaḥ or simply mālinīchandaḥ

लक्ष्मी+छाया =लक्ष्मीच्छाया अथवा लक्ष्मीछाया

lakṣmī+chāyā =lakṣmīcchāyā or lakṣmīchāyā

वनिता+छविः=वनिताच्छविः अथवा वनिताछविः

vanitā+chātrā=vanitācchaviḥ or vanitāchaviḥ

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

वर्ण+छत्रम्-=-------- varṇa+chatram-=--------

स्वर्ण+छुरिका=---------- svarṇa+churikā=----------

मातृ+छाया=------ mātṛ+chāyā=---------------

मात्रा+छन्दः=------ mātrā+chandaḥ=-----------

शुभ्रा+छविः=----- śubhrā+chaviḥ=-------------

जननी+छाया=----- jananī+chāyā=----------------

वधू+छविः=------------------- vadhū+chaviḥ=-------------------

अनुस्वारादेशः - anusvārādeśaḥ - Substitution by the 'anusvāra'

शान्तम्+तम् ---> शान्त म् +त् अम् ---> शान्त तम् = शान्तं तम्

śāntam+tam ---> śānta m +t am ---> śānta tam = śāntaṃ tam

हरिम्+वाञ्छति----> हरि म्+व् आञ्छति----> हरि वाञ्छति = हरिं वाञ्छति

harim+vāñchati----> hari m+v āñchati----> hari vāñchati = hariṃ vāñchati

अहम्+वसामि----> अह म्+व् असामि---->अह वसामि = अहं वसामि

aham+vasāmi----> aha m+v asāmi---->aha vasāmi = ahaṃ vasāmi

In these inwstances, the m ending of the prior word is substituted by the anusvāra when followed by a consonant. The aphorism applied here is mo:'nusvāraḥ (मोऽनुस्वारः).It is to be specially noted that this substitution does not take place when the m is followed immediately by a vowel or by nothing. It is imperative for the letter to precede a consonant to take this substitution.

It may also be noted that when the anusvāra is followed by a letter belonging to yay pratyāhāra, it is optionally substituted by a the closest letter homogenous to the subsequent by the aphorism vā padāntasya (वा पदन्तस्य) ). thus, tvam+ karoṣi = tvaṃ karoṣi ortvaṅkaroṣi (त्वम्+ करोषि = त्वं करोषि/ त्वङ्करोषि). Within a pada this substitution by a letter homogenous to the subsequent, of the anusvāra is compulsary when followed by a letter of the jhal pratyāhāra by the aphorism naścāpadāntasya jhali

(नश्चापदान्तस्य झलि).

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

हरिम्+वन्दे=--------------- harim+vande=---------------

सत्यम्+वद=-------------- satyam+vada=--------------

धर्मम्+चर = ---------------------- dharmam+cara = -------------

दुःखम्+त्यज = ------------- duḥkham+tyaja = -------------

शान्तम्+पापम् = --------------- śāntam+pāpam = ---------------

आपणम् + गत्वा = ----------- āpaṇam + gatvā = --------------

8. Substitution of the letter s when anusvāra precedes -

तान्+तान्---> ता रु+त् आन्---> ताँर्+तान् / तांर् तान्---> ताँ+तान् / तां+ तान् ---> ताँस् तान्/ तांस् तान् =ताँस्तान् /तांस्तान्

tān+tān---> tā ru +tān---> tār +tān / tāṃ r tān---> tām̐ḥ+tān / tāṃḥ + tān ---> tām̐s tān/ tāṃs tān =tām̐stān /tāṃstān

राजन्+तव--->राज र्+त् अव--->राजँर्+/राजं र्+--->राजँः+तव/राजंः+तव--->राजँस्त/राजंस्त

rājan+tava--->rāja r+t ava--->rājam̐r+tava/rājaṃ r+tava--->rājam̐ḥ+tava/rājaṃḥ+tava---> rājam̐stava/rājaṃstava

गच्छन्+ते--->गच्छ् र्+ते---> गच्छँर्+ते/गच्छंर्+ते---> गच्छँः+ते/गच्छंः +ते---> गच्छँस्ते/गच्छंस्ते

gacchan+te--->gacch r+te--->gaccham̐r+te/gacchaṃr+te---> gaccham̐ḥ+te/gacchaṃḥ+te= gaccham̐ste/gacchaṃste

In the above instances, first by the aphorism naśchavyapraśān (नश्छव्यप्रशान्), the letter n in each case gets the substitute ru (रु)of which only the r (र्) remains. Thereafter, there is an optional nasalisation, anunāsika,of the letter preceding rby atrānunāsikaḥ pūrvasya tu vā (अत्रानुनासिकः पूर्वस्य तु वा). In the event of not having the anunāsika, there will be anusvāra by anunāsikātparo'nusvāraḥ (अनुनासिकात्परोऽनुस्वारः). Meanwhile,in either case, the r , being followed by a letter of the khar pratyāhāra, gets substituted by visarga by the aphorism kharavasānayorvisarjanīyaḥ (खरवसानयोर्विसर्जनीयः). The visarga is then substituted by s by the rule visarjanīyasya saḥ (विसर्जनीयस्य सः). Thus, we get two forms of each example - one with anunāsika, the other with anusvāraand both with sakāra.

8.1. The aphorismnaśchavyapraśān excludes the word praśān (प्रशान्) from the purview of rutva . Hence, in cases like praśān + tanoti(प्रशान् + तनोति), the above sequence of operations does not occur. The form, therefore, will remain praśāntanoti(प्रशान्तनोति).

8.2. When the relevant letter of the Chavpratyāhāra essential to the substitution of n by ru happens to be c orch,then in the final stage of operations, the s substitute of visarga itself gets the substitute ś by stoścunā ścuḥ.Thus-

तान्+--> ता रु+--> ता र्+ --> ताँ र्+/ तां र्+--> ताँ ः+/ तांः+ --> ताँस्+/ तांस्+--> ताँश्+/ तांश्+=ताँश्च / तांश्च

tān+ca--> tā ru+ca--> tā r+ ca --> tām̐ r+ca/ tāṃ r+ca --> tām̐ ḥ+ca / tāṃḥ+ ca --> tām̐s+ca / tāṃs+ca--> tām̐ś+ca / tāṃś+ca = tām̐śca / tāṃśca

एतान् + छात्रान् --> एता र्+छात्रान् --> एताँ र्+छात्रान्/एतां र्+छात्रान्--> एताँ स्+छात्रान्/ एतांस्+ छात्रान्-->एताँश्छात्रान् / एतांश्छात्रान्

etān + chātrān --> etā r+chātrān --> etām̐ r+chātrān/etāṃ r+chātrān--> etām̐ s+chātrān/ etāṃs+ chātrān-->etām̐śchātrān / etāṃśchātrān

8.3.. When the relevant letter of the Chavpratyāhāra essential to the substitution of n by ru happens to be or ṭh, then in the final stage of operations, the s substitute of visarga itself gets the substitute by ṣṭunā ṣṭuḥ. Thus -

श्लोकान्+ टीकाभिः --> श्लोकाँश्टीकाभिः / श्लोकांष्टीकाभिः ślokān+ ṭīkābhiḥ --> ślokām̐śṭīkābhiḥ / ślokāṃṣṭīkābhiḥ

तस्मिन्+ठकारः --> तस्मिँष्ठकारः / तस्मिंष्ठकारः tasmin+ṭhakāraḥ --> tasmim̐ṣṭhakāraḥ / tasmiṃṣṭhakāraḥ

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

राजन्+ तव =---------------- rājan+ tava =----------------

गच्छन्+तर्हि =--------------- gacchan+tarhi =---------------

स्वपन्+तस्मात् =------- svapan+tasmāt =-------

धावन्+ततः = --------- dhāvan+tataḥ=---------

गच्छन्+चन्द्रः =----- gacchan+candraḥ =-----

पश्यन्+छायाम् =---------- paśyan+chāyām =----------

तान् + टिट्टिभान् = -------------- tān + ṭiṭṭibhān = --------------

शब्दान्+ठकारयुक्तान् = ----- śabdān+ṭhakārayuktān = ----------

Split the Combinations -

बालांस्तान् = --------------- bālāṃstān = ---------------

देवांस्तान् =------------------ devāṃstān =------------------

कांश्चन = --------------- kāṃścana = ---------------

देवांश्च =--------------- devāṃśca =---------------

बुधांश्च =---------------- budhāṃśca =----------------

9. ङमुण्णागमः - ṅamuṇṇāgamaḥ - The Augment of ’ṅuṭ’( ङुट्), ’ṇuṭ’( णुट्) and ’nuṭ’ (नुट्)

तस्मिन्+एव --> तस्मिन् न् +एव --> तस्मिन्नेव tasmin+eva --> tasmin n +eva --> tasminneva

गच्छन्+अवदत् -->गच्छन् न्+अवदत्-->गच्छन्नवदत् gacchan+avadat -->gacchan n+avadat --> gacchannavadat

सुगण्+ईशः --> सुगण् ण् ईशः-->सुगण्णीशः sugaṇ+īśaḥ --> sugaṇ ṇ + īśaḥ--> sugaṇṇīśaḥ

हसन्+इव --> हसन् न् + इव --> हसन्निव hasan+iva --> hasan n + iva --> hasanniva

तिङ्+अन्तः --> तिङ् ङ् + अन्तः --> तिङ्ङन्तः tiṅ+antaḥ --> tiṅ ṅ + antaḥ --> tiṅṅantaḥ

By the aphorism ṅamo hrasvādaci ṅamuṇ nityam (ङमो ह्रस्वादचि ङमुण् नित्यम् ), the letters of the ṅam pratyāhāra, viz., ṅ, ṇ and n, when preceded by a short vowel and followed by any vowel, take ṅuṭ, ṇuṭ and nuṭ augments respectively, of which only ṅ, ṇ and n remain. The above are the examples of ths rule. It may be noted that though the aphorism says "nityam", the rule is not nvarable as is gleaned by Pāṇini's own usages such as "tiṅanta", "sanādi" ( तिङन्त, सनादि )etc. without the augment.

Join and effect the euphonic changes -

महिङ्+इति = ------------ mahiṅ+iti = ------------

सन् + अच्युतः = ----------- san + acyutaḥ = -----------

पठन्+इव = ----------- paṭhan+iva = -----------

अ इ उण्+इति =----------------- a i uṇ+iti =-----------------

तस्मिन्+ ईषत् =------------ tasmin+ īṣat =------------

कुर्वन्+आसीत् = -------- kurvan+āsīt = --------

लङ्+अभवत् =------------- laṅ+abhavat =-------------

चरन् + उवाच =------------- caran + uvāca =-------------

उपविशन्+अवदत् = ------------ upaviśan+avadat = ------------

लिखन्+एव =-------------- likhan+eva =--------------

Exercise

उदाहरणानुसारं रिक्तस्थानानि पूरयत -

संहितपदेपूर्वपदम्उत्तरपदम्सन्धिभेदः

स्वर्गस्योपरि स्वर्गस्य उपरि स्वरसन्धिः

तथैव तथा एव स्वरसन्धिः

गायंस्तिष्ठति गायन् तिष्ठति व्यञ्जनसन्धिः

मुनिरुवाच मुनिः उवाच विसर्गसन्धिः

छायैव ----------- ------------ --------- -

द्वाविव ----------- ------------ --------- ----

प्रभात एव ------------ ------------ ---------

सुतोऽभवत् ------------ ------------- ---------

तल्लिखति -------------- ------------- ---------

शम्भू राजते --------------- ------------- ---------

सुचिरेणापि -------------- ------------- ---------

खल्वत्र ----------------- -------------- ---------

को वा ------------------- -------------- ---------

गुणिन्यपि -------------------- --------------- ---------

तन्न ------------------- ---------------- ---------

नास्त्युद्यमः -------------------- ---------------- ---------

कोऽहम् ------------------------ ---------------- ---------

वाङ्मयम् ------------------ ---------------- ---------

नीरोगः ------------------ ------------------ ----------

-------- तस्य अयम् ----------

Fill in the blanks as per illustrations -

Combined Form Prior Word Subsequent Word Type of Combination

svargasyopari svargasya upari svarasandhi

tathaiva tathā eva svarasandhi

gāyastiṣṭhati gāyan tiṣṭhati vyañjanasandhi

muniruvāca muni uvāca visargasandhi

chāyaiva ----------- ------------ ---------------

dvāviva ----------- ------------ ---------------

prabhāta eva ------------ -------------- ---------------

suto:'bhavat ------------ -------------- ----------------

tallikhati -------------- ----------------- -----------------

śambhū rājate --------------- ------------------ -----------------

sucireāpi -------------- ----------------- ------------------

khalvatra ----------------- -------------------- ------------------

ko vā ------------------- -------------------- ---------

guinyapi -------------------- -------------------- ------------------

tanna ------------------ -------------------- ------------------

nāstyudyama -------------------- --------------------- ------------------

ko:'ham ------------------------ -------------------- ------------------

mayam ------------------ ------------------------ ------------------

nīroga ------------------ -------------------------- ------------------

------------ tasya ayam ---------

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