śatṛ and śānacpratyayas - Present Participles

Theśat and śānac suffixes are used with the parasmaipada and ātmanepada roots respectively to form present participles. These serve to unify two sentences and are used when contemporaneity of actions is indicated. Of śat, only the at remains and when joined to the root, a takārānta nominal stem is formed which is then declined in the three genders . Words ending in present participles unify sentences while serving as adjectives and take the gender, number and case of the noun they qualify.

Eg.- In chātra likhati,pahati, it is intended to convey that the pupil simultaneously writes and reads. It is, in fact, two sentences indicating contemporary actions of the same agent viz., chātra likhati, chātra pahati and these two are combined by the śatpratyaya in chātra likhan pahati. There is also continuity of the action.

More Examples of śat

chātrau hasata dhāvata - The two pupils laugh, run

chātrau hasantau dhāvata the two pupils run while laughing

puruā upaviśanti, karmāi kurvanti - The men sit, work

upaviśanta puruā karmāi kurvanti The men work while sitting

sa citra paśyati, hasati - He sees the picture, laughs

sa citra paśyan hasati He laughs while seeing the picture

sā pcchati āgacchati - She asks, comes

sā āgacchantī pcchati - She comes while asking

vadanti, likhanti - She talks, writes

vadantya likhanti She writes while talking

Examples in different cases, of masculine forms

he pahan ! pāha smarasi vā ? O you, the one studying! Do you retain the lesson?

he abhinayantau ! calacitra dṛṣṭa vā ? O Ye two acting! Did you see the film?

he dhāvanta ! yūyam skhaliyeta O you running ! you may all trip !

sa citra paśyanta harimāhvayati He calls Hari while the latter is looking at the picture

tau citra paśyantau gurū āhvayata They both call the two teachers while the latter look at the picture

sa citram paśyata gurūn āhvayati He calls the teachers who are all looking at the picture

putra pālayatā pitrā tuyate Happiness is felt by the father while bringing up his son !

ntyadbhyā gāna śrūyate Song is listened to by both of them

while dancing

grāma gacchadbhiryātribhi nadī dśyate The river is spotted by the travellers while going to the village

tvayā pcchadbhyā praśnābhyā Doubts are cleared by the questions sandehanivāraa bhavati being raised by you

pahate śiyāya pustaka dīyate Book is being given to the pupil who is studying

samyaggāyadbhya gāyakebhya he gives prize to the singers who are puraskāra dadāti singing well

garjadbhya sihebhya The hunters fear the lions that are ākheakā bibhyati roaring

visjatām dhūmānā vara paśya Look at the colour of the smoke coming out

gacchati kāle daśarathasya catvāra With the passing of Time, four sons putrā ajāyanta were born to Daśaratha

bhāānadyā viharato paṇḍitayo There is great happiness to those two

mahān toa asti learned men while wading through the river of language.

alakurvatsu janeu eka vara The bridegroom is one of those people who are decking up

spśata vastunahinya jñāyate The hardness of the object is discerned by him who touches it

cintayadbhyā mantribhyā lekhanī ghyate The pen is held by the two thoughtful ministers

Examples in different cases, of feminine forms

ramā ntyati, abhinayati Ramā dances, acts

ramā ntyantī abhinayati Ramā acts while dancing

vanite hasata vārtālāpa kuruta The two ladies laugh, converse

vanite hasantyau vārttālāpa kuruta The two laughing ladies converse

krīantyau bālike mārga pcchatu Ask the two little playing girls, the way

he nimianti !netrayo kimabhavat ? O ye blinking lass ! What happened to your eyes?

he pibantyau ! ki pibatha? O ye two drinking maidens ! What is it that you drink ?

he namantya! ka namatha? O bowing ladies !

Whom do you bow to ?

sīvyantyā śrutyā vastramīkate The cloth is regarded byShruti while sewing

kathā śṛṇvatībhi bālikābhi tuyate Joy is felt by the little girls while listening to the story

bhramantyai hariyai tṛṇāni yaccha Give grass to the deer which is wandering about

pacantībhyā nārībhyā śākāni dadāmi I give the greens to the ladies who are cooking

śāikā krīantībhya chātrābhya Let him give money to the girl-students dhana dadātu who are buying the sari

tārā gaayantyā vaijñānikāyāyā The book falls from the hand of the hastāt pustaka patati lady-scientist who is counting the stars

āgacchantībhyā āpadbhyām Let God shield from the misfortunes that

īśvaro rakatu are coming

gaita pariśīlantyā samarthacchātrāyā Take the notebook of the smart girl who is trained in Mathematics pustikā ga

ghe tiṣṭhantyo ghiyo He listens to the conversation of the two vārttālāpa śṛṇoti housewives who are sitting at home

saskta jānantīnām adhyāpikānā Where is the house of the teachers gha kutra asti ? who know Sanskrit ?

śukībhavantyā nadyā Washing clothes is not proper, in the vastrakālana nocitam river already drying

vinā kāraam asūyantyām Who trusts that lazy woman who is alasāyā ka viśvasiti ? jealous without reason ?

patra preayantyo sakhyo The two friends who are sending letters mahatī pratīkā varttate have great expectations

dhenava puccha cālayantya The cows eat grass while swinging

tṛṇa khādanti their tails

pravahantī nadī mopagaccha Do not go near the flowing river

bhojana khādantī mātṝḥ paśyanti They watch over the mothers who are eating food

Examples in different cases, of neuter forms

gacchad yāna dhūma prasārayati The vehicle spreads smoke while moving

vikasatī pupe sugandha prasārayata The two blooming flowers spread fragrance

pracaranti cintanāni sarveā vijñānāya bhavanti The current thoughts are for everybody's knowledge

he vikasatpupa ! ānandadāyaka te saundaryam ! O ye blooming flower ! Joyful is thy beauty

he hasatī mitre ! hāsena mukhaśobhā vardhate O ye two laughing friends! beauty of face increases with laughter

he sakucanti sarojāni ! śva punarapi sūrya udeyati O withering lotuses! The sun will rise again tomorrow

naśyat yutaka ka vāñchati ?

koarāt paśyatī vilocane śukasyeva bhāta The eyes peeping from the nest seem to be those of a parrot

dhūma prasārayanti yānāni gacchanti the vehicles spreading smoke are moving

tāla janayatā vādyena jhaktam The musical instrument clanked creating rhythm

sakucadbhyā kumudābhyām kimprayojanam ? Of what use are the two lilies that are withering

pravahadbhi jalai nadītaā ārdrīkriyante The riverbanks are drenched by the flowing waters

prerayate bhāaāya sarve ki na sannaddhā ? Are not all persons ready for the inspiring speech ?

paśyadbhyā mitrābhyā citra yacchatu let him give the picture to the two friends who are watching

sphuradbhya vacanebhya kara prasārayati He pricks up his ears for the coruscating words

sphurata vākyād āśayamavagacchāma from the flashing sentence, the gist can be gathered

patadbhyā kusumābhyā parāga utpatati The pollens fly from the two falling flowers

prasaradbhya chatrebhya muktāni patanti The beads fall from the spreading umbrellas

skhalata apatyasya krīanakāni ga Take the books from your

tripping child

avatarato vimānayo vara nīla The two descending airplanes are blue in colour

ghanāraye yātrāyā sahasā purata utpatati vyāghre, With the tiger pouncing suddenly sphuratā hdayānā śabda aśrūyata during the travel through the dense forest, the sound of pulsating hearts could be heard

sravati payasi tatrato nirgaccha Move away from there when the water is flowing

tasyā netrayo hasato, mukha maunamāsthitam While her eyes laugh, the mouth resorts to silence

truatsu phaleu raso nāsti There is no juice in the splitting fruits

Note : The examples slightly differ from those in the Sanskrit version

The suffix śānac is used with ātmanepadī roots just as śat is used with parasmaipadī.

Of śānac, only 'āna' remains, which sometimes takes on the form of 'māna'.With śānac, the resultant nominal stem becomes 'akārānta' in the masculine and neuter and ākārānta in the feminine. the remaining functions are similar to those of the śatranta words. Eg.- vandamāna purua varamalabhata - The propitiating man gained boon, the word 'vandamāna - propitiating' is used as an adjective qualifying 'purua-man'

Examples of masculine words with śānac

vka vardhamāna asti The tree is in the process of growing

bhtyau ādriyamāau karma samyakkuruta The two servants, being respected, do the job well.

pareekamāā vaijñānikā The experimenting scientists explain tattva viśadayanti. the facts

he lajjamāna bālaka ! lajjā tyaja O bashful child! give up yourshyness

he bhuñjānau atithī !pāyasa O eating guests ! shall I serve pariveayāmi kim? pāyasa?

he adhīyānā sasktapremia ! O Sanskrit enthusiasts who are

iya kti tubhya samarpaye. studying, i dedicate this book to you all.

vandamāna chātram adhyāpaka anughāti The teacher blesses the child who greets

jāyamānau kumbhau dṛṣṭvā kulāla tuyati The potter is happy to see the the two pots taking shape

kampamānān aśvatthavkān bhakta The devotee bows to the shaking praamati peepul tree

vandamānena puttrea pitā tuyati. Father is happy by the chld who is greeting

modamānābhyā śiśubhyā It is played with ball by the chldren who kandukena krīyate are happy

yudadhyamānai sainikaiṣṭra rakitam. The nation was saved by the fighting soldiers

yatamānāya bhtyāya dhaniko dhana yacchati The rich man gives money to the hard- working servant

śayānābhyāṛṣibhyā rājā kambala dadāti. The king gives blanket to the retiring sages

spardhamānebhya yuvabhya ciikā dīyante The competing youth are given coupens

palāyamānāt sainikāt khaga patati The sword falls from the retreating soldier

tvaramāebhya mantribhya ādeśa ghātu Take order from the hurrying ministers

pradarśyamānasya pustakasya What is the cost of the book being

mūlya kim? displayed?

lambamānayo hārayo vara ujjvala The hanging garlands have a sparkling hue

vardhamānānā bālānā ārogya The health of growing children should sarakaīyam be preserved

kaṣṭa dhairyea sahamāne jane The God's compassion is on those who īśvarasya kpā bhavati. courageously endure hardships

krīānayo colayo citrāi santi The two cloths being purchased

are printd

prakāśyamāneu grantheu aya Of all the books being published, this

mahya rocate one interests me.

Examples in different cases, of feminine forms

vardhamānā mallikā sarveā mano harati The thriving jasmine attracts everyone's mind

edhamāne rākasyau duṣṭe sta The two thriving demonesses are evil

lajjamānā nārya manda hasanti The bashful ladies smile shyly

he analasamāne rogii ! kārya mā kuru O sprightly patient ! Do not work, viśrama kuru take rest

he prakāśamāne bālike ! O two bright little girls !Whose yuvā keā mano na harata ? mind doesnot get attracted to you both !

he ārabhamāā parīkā ! O commencing Examinations ! You are yūya me nikaopalā my touching stones!

śayānā vddhā duhitā paricarati The daughter looks after the old lady who is lying down

prakāśamāne ktī aha krīāmi I am buying the books that are being published

pathika yānāpakae mriyamāā yuvatī The passer-by tries to save the young rakitu yatate women dying in the vehicle-accident

pacamānayā mātrā śākā kartyante Green leaves are cut by mother who is cooking

dyotamānābhyā nadībhyā grāma puyate The village is nourished by the two flowing rivers

śobhamānābhi reetībhi Life becomes beautiful by beautiful

jīvana sundara bhavati customs

prārthayamānāyai draupadyai God gave boon for the worshipping

devo vara dadāti Draupadī

bhuñjānābhyā strībhyāmida This pāyasa should suffice for the two pāyasamalam ladies who are eating

āśrame varttamānāyā dhenvo One gets ambrosia-like milk from the

pīyūatulya kīra labhate cow living in the hermitage

bhāsamānābhyā nagarībhyā bahi Outside the two sparkling cities, shines mahāstambha vibhāti the great pillar

kampamānābhya latābhya fragrant flowers fall from the shaking sugandhikusumāni patanti creepers

yudhyamānāyā senāyā purata eva the leader is right in the front of the

netā asti fighting army

vimāne sevamānayo yuvatyo śāike paśya Look at the saris of the two

ladies serving in the airplane

unnatādhikāre śobhamānānā strīām The self-confidence shines forth,

ātmaviśvāsa sphurati of the ladies serving in high posts

āśakamānāyā navavadhvā bharttā snihyati The husband cares for the bride, who, however, frets

tṛṇabhuñjānayo dhenvo Of the two cows chewing grass,

ekasyā vatsah asti one has a calf

spardhamānāsu narttakīu ramaiva kuśalatamā Of the competing danseuses, ramā is the cleverest

Examples in different cases, of neuter forms

pacyamāna phalam ākaraka bhavati The ripening fruit is attractive

prakāśamāne jyotiī sarvatra prasarata The two bright luminaries spread everywhere

vardhamānāni pallavāni ātapena śuyanti The growing tender shoots dry up due to heat

he jñeyamāna brahma ! tva mokakāraa bhavati O knowable Brahma! thou art the cause of Salvation

he prayujyamāne uttare ! yuvyoO ye two answers being given ! mama bhaviyamāśritam On you both rests my future

he cinvānāni kusumāni ! O ye flowers being gathered!

sugandho vā toayati your fragrance pleases me

kāmayamāna tarua sā pariināya She married the desirous youth

adhīyāne mitre saśaya pcchāmi I shall ask doubt of the two friends who are studying

tanvānāni sarāsi pakia gacchanti Birds go to the brimming lakes

śakamānena manasā eva cintitam Thus, was thought by the doubting mind

tvaramāābhyā cakrābhyā yāna calati The vehicle moves by the two

hurrying wheels

labhamānai pāritoikai vaya pramuditā We are happy with the prizes being received

plavamānābhyā kandukābhyā ubhau krīata They both play with the two bouncing balls

kīyamāai dhārmikamūlyai kalācāro na rakyate Culture cannot be protected by decaying righteous values

syandamānai jalai śaitya labhate Coolness is got from the flowing

waters

mriyamāāya mitrāya auadha prāpayati he reaches out medicine for the

dying friend

tvayā kāmayāmānābhyā Money is required for the two pustakābhyā dhanamāvaśyakam books being desired by you

yatamānebhya chātttrebhya puraskāro dīyate Prize is given to the students are taking efforts

kampamānāt nīāt aṇḍam apatat Egg fell from the shaking nest

tasyā kampamānābhyām adharābhyā Words did not emanate from her vaco na nistam shaking lips

cālyamānābhyā syandanābhyā Children look out of the two śiśava bahi paśyanti moving vehicles

pratiyogitāyā spardhamānasya Tell the name of the friend mitrasya nāma vada participating in the competition

vardhamānayo padmayoreka Elephant plucked out one of the gaja ujjahāra two blooming lotuses

lambamānānā vastrāā śobhayā People are attracted to the shop janā āpaa pratyākṛṣṭā by the beauty of the hanging clothes

bādhamāne kaṇṭake viamasti There is poison in the irritating thorn

pradarśyamānayo citrayo Your form is sketched in one of ekasmin tava rūpamālikhitam the two pictures being exhibited

Bhārate āghuyamāeu parvasu dīpāvalī mama priyā Of all the festivals being celebrated in India, I like Dīpāvalī best.

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