Bhvādigaṇaḥ - Conjugation of Roots

Bhvādigaa - Atmanepadaprakriyā

labh (labhe) la(varttamāne - for present action)

ekavacanam dvivacanam bahuvacanam

Prathamapurua Third Person labhate labhete labhante

Madhyamapurua Second Person labhase labhethe labhadhve

Uttamapurua First Person labhe labhāvahe labhāmahe

Prathamapurua - Third Person

Though the word 'prathama' means 'first', the Sanskrit Prathamapurua actually corresponds to the English 'Third' Person and viceversa . The examples, thus, would be

Third Person

sa pustaka labhate - He gets the book

chātrau modaka labhete -Two pupils get the sweets

bālakā vastrāi labhante - The litttle boys ( three or more )get clothes.

Second Person

tva puraskāra labhase - You get prize

yuvā padmaśrīpuraskāra labhethe -You both get Padmaśrī Award

yūyam anna labhadhve - You all get meals

First Person

ahaana labhe- I get beating !

āvām āmaraphala labhāvahe - We both get mangoes

vaya nūtanavastrāi labhāmahe -We all get new clothes

saha li(paroke - for remote past action)

ekavacanam dvivacanam bahuvacanam

Prathamapurua Third Person sahe sehaate sehire

madhyamapurua Second person sehishe sehaathe sehidhve uttamapurua First person sehe sehivahe sehimahe

Third Person

Rāma vane dukha sahe - Rāma bore much miseries in the forest

Kṛṣṇabalarāmau śaiśave kaṣṭa sehāte- Kṛṣṇa & Balarāma bore a lot of sufferings in Childhood

Nāyakā svātantryasamare tyāga sehire- Leaders bore a lot of sacrifices during the Freedom Movement

Second Person

tva kaṣṭaśata sehie -You endured a hundred troubles

yuvā dukha sehāthe - You both endured sorrow

yūya bhubhukā sehidhve - You all endured hunger

First Person

aha bālye kaṣṭa sehe - I endured sufferings in Childhood

āvā śaiśave pipāsā sehivahe - We both endured thirst in childhood

vaya pūrvajanmani dāridrya sehimahe - All of us suffered penury in our last births

sev lu ( anadyatane bhaviye - Future action pertaining not to the day of narration)

Singular Dual Plural

Prathamapurua Third Person sevitā sevitārau sevitāra madhyamapurua Second person sevitāse sevitāsāthe sevitādhve uttamapurua First person sevitāhe sevitāsvahe sevitāsmahe

Third Person

putra pitara sevitā - Son will serve Father

śiya guru sevitārau - both the pupils will serve the perceptor

sainikā deśa sevitāra- the soldiers will serve the country

Second Person

tva pitāmaha sevitāse - you will serve grandfather

yuvā bhattārau sevitāsāthe - you both will serve your husbands

yūya vijñānasasthā sevitādhve - all of you will serve a scientific organisation

First Person

aham adhyāpakam sevitā I will serve my Teacher

āvā deva sevitāsvahe We both will serve God

vayam samāja sevitāsmahe We will all serve the Community

kamu kaantau - kamu meaning to desire - lṛṭ (for future action)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person kāmayiyate kāmayiyete kāmayiyante Madhyamapurua Second person kāmayiyase kāmayiyethe kāmayiyadhve Uttamapurua First person kāmayiye kāmayiyāvahekāmayiyāmahe

Third Person

धनमोही धनम् कामयिष्यते - the avaricious one will covet money

चोरौ रत्नं कामयिश्येते - the two thieves will long for the jewel

बालकाः मधुरं कामयिष्यन्ते - all little boys will yearn for sweets

Second Person

tva moka kāmayiyase - you will long for Salvation

yuvā samsktapahana kāmayiyethe- you both will desire Sanskrt learning

yūya netradāna kāmayiyadhve - all of you will wish for eye- donation

First Person

aha kāñcana na kāmayiye - I will not desire Gold

āvām atimoha na kāmayiyāvahe - We both will not desire excessive avarice

vaya sarveām sukha kāmayiyāmahe - we will all desire everyone's happiness

dada daane -meaning giving loT( in the sense of command, request)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person dadatām dadetā dadantām Madhyamapurua Second person dadasva dadethā dadadhvam

Uttamapurua First person dadai dadāvahai dadāmahai

Third Person

dhanika yācakāya dhana dadatām - Let the affluent one give money to the beggar

bhavantau gurave dakśinā dadetām - both of you should give fees to the Teacher

adhyāpakā chātrebhya vijñāna dadantām - May the teachers impart specialised knowledge to the students

Second Person

tva mātre vastra dadasva - you should provide clothes to Mother

yuvām bhāratadeśāya sevana dadethām- You both should provide service to the nation

yūyam pitre samrakaam dadadhvam- All of you should provide support to Father

First person

अहं संस्कृताय सेवनं ददै - I should provide service to Sanskrit

अहं पठनाय पुस्तकं ददावहै - We both should provide books for studies

वयं मृगसंरक्षणाय प्रोत्साहनं ददामहे - all of us should provide encouragement to animal- protection

aya gatau - meaning 'to go'

la anadyatane bhūte( for past action not pertaining to the day of narration)

Singular Dual Plural

Prathamapurua Third Person āyata āyetām āyanta Madhyamapurua Second person āyatha āyethām āyadhvam Uttamapurua First person āye āyāvahi āyāmahi

Third Person

rāma vanam āyata - Rāma went to forest

ṛṣī paraśālām āyetām The two sages went to the bower

chātrā pahanayātrārtham dillīnagaram āyanta- the students went to Delhi on study tour

Second Person

tvakeralānāyathā - You went to Kerala

yuvāmātulaghamāyethām - you both went to Uncle's house

yūyamāturālayamāyadhvam - you all went to the hospital

First Person

aha videśam āye - I went abroad

āvā mandiram āyāvahi - we both went to Temple

vaya pustakālayam āyāmahi - We all went to the Library

dada daane -meaning to give, vidhili( to entrust, request, pray. command etc)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person dadeta dadeyātām daderan Madhyamapurua Second person dadethā dadeyāthām dadedhvam Uttamapurua First person dadeya dadevahi dademahi

Third Person

ramā lekhanī dadeta - May Ramā give pen

chātrau pustaka dadeyātām - May the two students give the books

mahilā śiśubhya stanya dadyeran - May women give breast- milk to infants

Second Person

tva putrebhya vastra dadethā - May you give clothes to the sons

yuvā sasktapahanāya protsāhana dadeyāthām - may yuo both give encouragement to Sanskrit Learning

yūyam nirdhanāya rūpyakāi dadedhvam- may you all give money to the needy

First Person-

aha kanyādānārtha suvaram dadeya - I may give gold for the girl's marriage

āvām nirdhanabālakasya pahanāya dhanam dadevahi-we both may give books for the studies of the poor boy

vayam devaprītyartha pui dademahi - We may give flowers for the propitiation of Gods

labha -to get, āśīrli (Benediction)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person lapsīṣṭalapsīyāstām lapsīran Madhyamapurua Second person lapsīṣṭ lapsīyāsthām lapsīdhvam Uttamapurua First person lapsīya lapsīvahi lapsīmahi

Third Person

bhavān jīvane śānti lapsīṣṭa - Peace be to thee in life !

hariau yatheṣṭasañcārārtha svātantrya lapsīyāstām -

Freedom be to the two deers for free movement !

janā sukhajīvanāya uttamavtti lapsīran -

Best jobs be to people for happy living !

Second Person

tva jīvane ātmaniyantraa lapsīṣṭ - Self-Restraint be unto thee in life !

yuvā sarvadā devaprīti lapsīyāsthām - Grace of God be unto ye both always !

yūya sarve ātmaśānti lapsīdhvam - Peace with Self be to ye all !

First Person

aha jīvane dhīratā lapsīya Courage be mine in life !

āvā pitvātsalya lapsīvahi Parent's love be unto both of us !

vaya bahujanaprīti lapsīmahi Popularity be ours !

seva - to serve, lu (sāmānyabhūte - General Past Tense)

Singular Dual Plural

Prathamapurua Third Person aseviṣṭaaseviātām aseviata Madhyamapurua Second person aseviṣṭā aseviāthām asevidhvam Uttamapurua First person asevii asevivahi asevimahi

Third Person

sureśa jyeṣṭhabhrātaram aseviṣṭa- Suresha served his elder brother

pautrau pitāmaham aseviātam- the two grandsons served their grandfather

śi gurum aseviata- All the students served the preceptor

Second Person

tva mātaram aseviṣṭā - you served Mother

yuvā mātāmahīm aseviāthām -you both served grandmother

yūya janmadeśam asevidhvam - you all served your Motherland

First Person

aha bharttāram asevii - i served my husband

āvā samājam asevimahi - we both served the community

vaya rugān asevimahi - we all served the ailing.

saha sahane - to endure, lṛṅ(conditional mood)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person asahiyata asahiyetām asahiyanta Madhyamapurua Second person asahiyathā asahiyethām asahiyadhvam Uttamapurua First person asahiye asahiyāvahi asahiyāmahi

Third Person

niāda kaṣṭam asahiyata cet

madhu alapsyata - Had the hunter endured suffering, he would ultimately have got the nectar

yadi rājeśagaurīśau pāhyabhāram asahiyetām -Had Rajesh and Gaureesh endured tau parīkāyāmuttīrau abhaviyatām the burdenof Studies, they would

have passed the Examination.

krīakā kahinayatnam asahiyanta cet - Had the players endured hardwork olimpikpadakam alapsyanta they would have won the Olympic

medals

Second Person

tvam dīrghayātrāyākaṣṭam asahiyathā cet unnatavidyābhyāsam alapsyathā

Had you borne the trouble of long commute, you would have gotten higher education

yuvām tiktauadham asahiyethā cet rogamocanam alapsyethām

Had you both tolerated the sharp medicine, you would both have been relieved of the ailment.

yūyam pahanabhāram asahiyadhva cet unnativijayam alapsyadhvam

Had you all borne the burden of Studies, you would have been highly successful.

First Person

aha śaityam asahiye ced himālayārūha abhaviyam

Had I endured the cold, I could have climbed the Himalayas.

āvā sāmpattikakaṣṭāni asahiśyāvahi ceddāmpatya sukhamayam abhaviyat Had we both endured the financial crisis, our marriage would have been blissful

vayam dhanāhyā abhaviyāma cedbubhukā na asahiyāmahi

Had we all been rich, we would not have suffered hunger

paha, la, parasmaipaī, varttamāne(Simple Present Tense)

Singular Dual Plural

Prathamapurua Third Person pahati pahata pahanti Madhyamapurua Second person pahasi pahata pahata Uttamapurua First person pahāmi pahāva pahāma

Third Person

rāma saskta pahati - Rama studies Sanskrit

bālau pustaka pahata - The two boys read the book

chātrā kathā pahanti - The students read the story

Second Person

tva saskta pahasi - You study sanskrit

yuvāha pahata - You both study the lesson

yūya pustaka pahata - All of you study the book

First Person

aha kavitā pahāmi - I read the poem

āvā lekhana pahāva - We both read the article

vaya kathā pahāma - We read the story

bhū, li-paroke( Past Perfect or remote past)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person babhūva babhūvatu babhūvu Madhyamapurua Second person babhūvitha babhūvathu babhūva Uttamapurua First person babhūva babhūviva babhūvima

Third Person

mama pitāmahaṣṭrapati babhūva - My grandfather was the Presidentof the country

mama mātulau sainikau babhūvatu - my two uncles were soldiers

pūrvikā vānararūpā babhūvu - Our ancestors were like monkeys

Second Person

tva śiśu babhūvitha - you were a baby

yuvā bālakau babhūvathu - you both were little boys

yūyam chātrā babhūva - you were all students

First Person

aha svapne nirdhano babhūva - in the dream I became a pauper

āvā svapne yātrikau babhūvitha - We both were travellers in the dream

vaya svapne sampannā babhūvima - we were all very rich in the dream

gaml, to go - lu anadyatane bhāvini (First or Periphrastic Future or

distant Future)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person gantā gantārau gantāra

Madhyamapurua Second person gantāsi gantāstha gantāstha

Uttamapurua First person gantāsmi gantāsva gantāsma

Third Person

bālaka vidyālaya gantā - The child shall go to School

gurū mandira gantārau - The two Teachers shall go to Temple

kavaya rājasabhā gantāra - The poets shall go to the royal court

Second Person

tva dillīnagara gantāsi - you shall go to Delhi

yuvām āpaa gantāstha - you both shall go to the market

yūya devālaya gantāstha - All of you shall go to Church

First Person

aha mātulasya gha gantāsmi - I shall go to my uncle's place

āvā pustakālayam gantāsva - We both shall go to the Library

vaya kāryālaya gantāsma - we shall all go to the office

paa - to drink, lṛṭ ( second or Simple Future)

Singular Dual PluralPrathamapurua Third Person pāsyati pāsyata pāsyanti

Madhyamapurua Second person pāsyasi pāsyatha pāsyatha

Uttamapurua First person pāsyāmi pāsyāva pāsyāma

Third Person - Gītā jala pāsyati - Gita will drink water

-chātrau kīra pāsyata - The two students will drink Milk

- vanitā phalarasa pāsyanti - The ladies will drink juice

Second Person - tva madhu pāsyati - you will drink nectar (wine)

- yuvām amta pāsyatha - you both will drink ambrosia

- yūya nārikelajala pāsyatha - you all will drink coconut water

First Person - aha kīra pāsyāmi - I will drink milk

- āvā jala pāsyāva - We both will drink water

- vaya madhu pāsyāma - we will all drink nectar

dś- lo ( Imperative mood)

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person paśyatu paśatām paśyantu

madhyamapurua second person paśya paśyatam paśyata

uttamapurua first person paśyāni paśyāva paśyāma

Third Person - chātra pustaka paśyatu - the student should see the book

- bālike citram paśyatām - the two little girls should see the picture

- mahilā dinapatra paśyantu - the ladies should see the daily newspaper

Second Person - tva guru paśaya - You should see the Preceptor

- yuvā śāikā paśyatam - You both should see the sari

- yūya pitara paśyata - you should all see father

First Person - aha calaccitram paśyāni - I should see the movie

- āvā sagaakayantra paśyāva - We both should see the computer

- vaya amarakośa paśyāma - we should all see Amarakośa

has - la anadyatane bhūte( Past imperfect)

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person ahasat ahasatām ahasan

madhyamapurua second person ahasa ahasatam ahasata

uttamapurua first person ahasam ahasāva ahasāma

Third Person - jānakī citra dṛṣṭvā ahasat -

Janaki laughed upon seeing the picture

- pitarau phalita śrutvā ahasatām

parents laughed upon hearing the forecast

sodarā hastatāana ktvā ahasan

the brothers claapped their hands and laughed

Second Person - tvaaka dṛṣṭvā ahasa

you laughed on seeing the drama

yuvā calacitra dṛṣṭvā ahasatam

You both laughed after seeing the film

yūya vānara dṛṣṭva ahasata

You all laughed on seeing the monkey

First Person - aha kathākelī dṛṣṭvā ahasam

I laughed on seeing the kathakali

āvām hāsokti śrutvā ahasāva

we both laughed upon hearing the joke

vaya krīā dṛṣṭvā ahasāma

we laughed on seeing the play

vas, vidhili

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person vaset vasetām vaseyu

madhyamapurua second person vase vasetam vaseta

uttamapurua first person vaseyam vaseva vasema

Third Person - sumā keraleu vaset Let suma live in Kerala

puruau tiruvanantapure vasetām

Let the two men reside in Tiruvanantapuram

mrugā vane vaseyu Let the animals live in the forest

Secnd Person - tva svaghe vase - you had better live in your house yuvā mātulaghe vasetam you both must live in your uncle's house

yūya bhārate vaseta you all must reside in India

First Person - aha chātrāvāse vaseyam I must stay in the hostel

āvā videśe vaseva we both must reside abroad

vaya dillīnagare vasema we all must live in Delhi

sthā, āśīrli

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person stheyāt stheyāstām stheyāsu madhyamapurua second person stheyā stheyāstam stheyāsta uttamapurua first person stheyāsam stheyāsva stheyāsma

Third Person - Rameśa sasukha mandire stheyāt

May ramesha remain happy in the Temple !

Rameśagaurīśau vidyālaye stheyāstām

May Ramesha and Gaureesha remain in school !

pakia vkeu stheyāsu

May birds remain in their trees !

Second Person - tva sasukha stheyā

May you remain happy !

yuvā svasthau stheyāstam

May you both remain healthy !

yūya saubhāgyaśālina stheyāsta

May you all remain fortunate !

First Person - aha vīra stheyāsam

May i remain brave !

āvā tantraśālinau stheyāsva

May we both remain clever !

vaya sāttvikā stheyāsma

May we all remain sublime

gai to sing, lu sāmānyabhūte

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person agāsīt agāsiṣṭām agāsiu

madhyamapurua second person agāsī agāsiṣṭam agāsiṣṭa uttamapurua first person agāsiam agāsiva agāsima

Third Person - kokila madhuram agāsīt

gāyakau calaccitragānam agāsiṣṭām

bālakāṣṭragānam agāsiu

Second Person - tva stotram agāsī

yuvā rāmāyaam agāsiṣṭam

yūya deśabhaktigānam agāsiṣṭa

First Person - aha śāstriyasagītam agāsiam

āvā lokagītam agāsiva

vaya saghagānam agāsima

vad, lṛṅ

singular dual pluralprathamapurua third person avadiyat avadiśyatām avadiyan

madhyamapurua second person avadiya avadiyatam avadiyata uttamapurua first person avadiyam avadiyāva avadiyāma

Third Person sa satyamavadiyaccedaha ta prāśasyam

Had he spoken the Truth, I would have praised him.

tau buddhipūrvam avadiyatā cedaha tayorvāda svyakariyam

Had those two spoken rationally, I would have accepted their argument.

adhyāpakā avadiyan ced bālassamyag apahiyat

Had the Teacher told them to, the boys would have studied well.

Second Person tva samyag avadiya cet sa na aśocayiyat

Had you told properly, he would not have been sad.

yadi yuvā kāryam avadiyata sa na vthā asthāsyat

Had you both told him the position, he would not have sat idle.

yadi yūya sasktena avadiyata chātrā api sasktena avadiyan

Had you all spoken Sanskrit, so would have, the students.

First Person yadyaha kathā avadiya bālā saśraddham aśroyan

Had I told them a story, the children would have listened with interest.

āvā tamavadiyāva cetsa yathāsamayam āgamiyat

Had we both told him, he would have arrived in time.

yadi vaya yuvakam avadiyām sa sanmārgam adrakyat

Had we spoken to the lad, he would have seen the right path.

NoteSlight changes have been made in these English version Examples. Introduction to Lakāras has also been changed.

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