Subhāṣitāni - Pithy Verses

विद्या vidyā – Learning

1. न चोरहार्यं न च राजहार्यं न भ्रातृभाज्यं न च भारकारि ।

व्यये कृते वर्द्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनात्प्रधानम् ॥

na corahāryaṃ na ca rājahāryaṃ na bhrātṛbhājyaṃ na ca bhārakāri |

vyaye kṛte varddhata eva nityaṃ vidyādhanaṃ sarvadhanātpradhānam ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

na, corahāryam, na, ca, rājahāryam, na, bhrātṛbhājyam, na, ca, bhārakāri; vyaye, kṛte, varddhate, eva, nityam, vidyādhanam, sarvadhanāt, pradhānam.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

na no/ not Particle of negation, an indeclinable

corahāryam capable of being (चोरेण हार्यम्=चोरहार्यम्) a tatpuruṣa

taken away compound, the second member

by a thief/stolen of which ends in a primary affix

(root hṛ+ṇyat - हृ+ण्यत्)

ca also/ as well as. With A collective conjunction the negative particle primarily meaning "and"

'na', it denotes

neither/nor

rājahāryam capable of being taken A tatpuruṣa compound as above away by the king (राज्ञा हार्यम्=राजहार्यम्)

(Confiscated)

bhrātṛbhājyam Capable of being divided A tatpuruṣa compound as above,

among siblings as is the though the case is locative here as

case with inherited against the earlier instrumental

property भ्रातृषु भाज्यम्( भज् +ण्यत्)

bhārakāri not causing burden bhāraṃ karotīti bhārakāri ; bhārakārin, नकारान्तनपुंसकलिङ्गशब्दः, प्रथमाविभक्तिः,

एकवचनम् Noun-stem ending in "n",

Neuter gender, nominative singular

vyaye on being spent vyaya, stem ending in short "a" masculine, locative singular

kṛte on being done stem - kṛta, ending in short "a" (syntactically connected to 'vyaye') masculine, locative singular in

concord with "vyaye" which it

qualifies.

varddhate augments, increases root vṛdha, varddhane - to increase,

ātmanepadī, laṭlakāra, Third Person,

singular

eva only / verily / certainly An indeclinable

nityam always/ every day indeclinable in this sense

vidyādhanam The wealth of Learning A madhyamapadalopī compound

- vidyā eva dhanam iti vidyādhanam

sarvadhanāt more than all (other) sarvaṃ dhanaṃ sarvadhanam, tasmāt

wealth stem-sarvadhana, short-'a'-ending, neuter, ablative singular

pradhānam important/ significant/ stem-pradhāna, short-'a'-ending, neuter,

superior nominative, singular

PROSE-ORDER

vidyādhanaṃ corahāryaṃ na, rājahāryaṃ ca na, bhrātṛbhājyaṃ na, bhārakāri ca na (bhavati); vyaye kṛte, nityaṃ varddhate eva, ( tasmāt hetoḥ), (tat) sarvadhanāt pradhānam (अस्ति).

GIST

The wealth of Learning (unlike other material wealth), is neither capable of being stolen by thieves , nor capable of being forfeited by the king (in wrath), nor does it (like other wealth) cause any undue burden on the mind or body. (And, quite contrary to the other forms of wealth), it only increases manifold on being spent on others! Therefore, it (the wealth of learning) is supreme among all forms of wealth.

2. विद्वत्त्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन ।

स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥

vidvattvaṃ ca nṛpatvaṃ ca naiva tulyaṃ kadācana |

svadeśe pūjyate rājā vidvān sarvatra pūjyate ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

vidvattvam, ca, nṛpatvam, ca, na, eva, tulyam, kadācana ; svadeśe, pūjyate, rājā, vidvān, sarvatra, pūjyate.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

vidvattvam The quality of being vidvas+ tva (secondary suffix)

learned or knowledgeable vidvattva, short-a-ending, neuter,

nominative singular

ca and /also/ as well as. A collective conjunction primarily meaning "and"

nṛpatvam The quality of being a king nṛpa + tva, nṛpatva, short-a-ending,

kingliness, monarchy, neuter, nominative singular

sovereignty

na no/ not Particle of negation, an indeclinable

eva only/ verily/ certainly An indeclinable

with 'na', it means

'certainly not', 'never'

tulyam comparable/equal/ tulya,short-a-ending, neuter,

similar/same nominative singular, in concord with words it qualifies (vidvattvam & nṛpatvam in the present context)

kadācana at any time/ whatever time/ The indeclinable kadā meaning at any given point of time/ 'when?', when suffxed with 'cana', sometime/ once upon a time denotes a general, indeterminate point of time. The suffix 'cit' is

also used in the same sense.

svadeśe in one's own country or svasya deśaḥ svadeśaḥ, tasmin

native place A tatpuruṣa compound

pūjyate is worshipped, honoured root pūja pūjāyām, to worship, laṭlakāra (with 'yak'), atmanepadī,

Third Person singular, Passive voice

rājā king, sovereign rājan ,n -ending, masculine,

nominative singular

vidvān the learned, knowledgeable vidvas, s-ending, masculine,

person nominative singular

sarvatra everywhere The suffix tral is added to

the pronoun sarva -'all', to form the indeclinable

sarvatra denoting the sense of location.

PROSE ORDER

vidvattvam ca nṛpatvam ca kadācana na eva tulyam; rājā svadeśe (eva) pūjyate, vidvān (tu) sarvatra pūjyate.

GIST

Being learned and being a king - these two can never mean the same thing (i.e., the two states are incomparable). (Because), a king is honoured only in his own territory (whereas), a learned man gets honour everywhere.

3. किं कुलेन विशालेन विद्याहीनस्य देहिनः।

अकुलीनोऽपि विद्यावान् देवैरपि स पूज्यते ॥

kiṃ kulena viśālena vidyāhīnasya dehinaḥ|

akulīno'pi vidyāvān devairapi sa pūjyate ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

kim, kulena, viśālena, vidyāhīnasya, dehinaḥ ; akulīnaḥ, api, vidyāvān devaiḥ, api, saḥ, pūjyate.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

kim what?/ Of what The pronoun 'kim', meaning "what" but

consequence? having nuances according to the context.

Here it qualifies 'prayojanam"which is not expressed but understood.There is also an indeclinable 'kim' which is always used, in a derogatory sense, as the prior member of a compound as in 'kiṃsakhā' etc.

kulena by,or of, noble lineage kula short -a-ending, neuter, Instrumental

singular

viśālena huge/great. Here,also viśāla - short -a-ending, neuter, Instrumental

long singular, in concord with 'kulena' which it

qualifies.

Vidyā-

hīnasya of one without learning vidyayā hīnaḥ vidyāhīnaḥ, tasya. vidyāhīna - short - a-ending, masculine, Genitive Singular; A tatpuruṣa compound qualifying 'dehinaḥ'

dehinaḥ of a person, literally, dehaḥ asya astīti dehī, tasya; dehin, n-ending, of one endowed with masculine, genitive singular

a body

akulīnaḥ one not of noble lineage kule bhavaḥ, kulīnaḥ, na kulīnaḥ akulīnaḥ. akulīna, short-a-ending, masc., nom., singular

api also/even, sometimes an indeclinable

has other semantic

nuances

vidyāvān one with learning vidyayā yuktaḥ vidyāvān; vidyā+secondary

suffix vatup vidyāvat; t-ending, masc., nom., singular,in concord with akulīnaḥ which it qualifies

devaiḥ by the gods deva, short-a-ending, masc., Instrumental

Plural

saḥ that person/ he tad, d-ending, masc.,nom.,singular in

concord with the words akulīnaḥ and vidyāvān (dehī) which it qualifies

pūjyate is worshipped/ root pūja pūjāyām, to worship, passive honoured form, laṭlakāra (with 'yak'), atmanepadī,

Third Person singular, Passive voice.

PROSE ORDER

vidyāhīnasya dehinaḥ viśālena kulena kim? akulīnaḥ api vidyāvān saḥ (dehī) devaiḥ api pūjyate.

GIST

Of what consequence is the noble lineage, however vast, of a person devoid of learning?

Despite the lack of a great lineage, that man who is bestowed with sound learning is venerated

even by the gods!

5. विद्या नाम नरस्य रूपमधिकं प्रच्छन्नगुप्तं धनं

विद्या भोगकरी यशः सुखकरी विद्या गुरूणां गुरुः ।

विद्या बन्धुजनो विदेशगमने विद्या परा देवता

विद्या राजसु पूज्यते न हि धनं विद्याविहीनः पशुः॥

vidyā nāma narasya rūpamadhikaṃ pracchannaguptaṃ dhanaṃ

vidyā bhogakarī yaśaḥ sukhakarī vidyā gurūṇāṃ guruḥ |

vidyā bandhujano videśagamane vidyā parā devatā

vidyā rājasu pūjyate na hi dhanaṃ vidyāvihīnaḥ paśuḥ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

vidyā, nāma, narasya, rūpam,adhikam, pracchannaguptam, dhanam, vidyā, bhogakarī, yaśaḥ- sukhakarī, vidyā, gurūṇām, guruḥ, vidyā, bandhujanaḥ, videśagamane, vidyā, parā, devatā,vidyā rājasu, pūjyate, na, hi, dhanam, vidyāvihīnaḥ, paśuḥ.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

vidyā learning/knowledge ā-ending, feminne, nom.singular

nāma name/renowned/verily an indeclinable with many semantic

nuances. Stands for being 'known' as/

renowned

narasya of man nara, a-ending, masc., gen.,singular

rūpam (good) looks/ a-ending, neuter, nom.,singular

appearance

adhikam exceedingly a-ending, neuter, nom., singular in

concord with rūpam which it qualifies and may be dhanam also

pracchanna- secretly hoarded pracchannarūpeṇa guptam; a

guptam madhyamapadalopī compound; a-ending, neuter, nom.,singular, qualifying and so in concord with

dhanam

bhogakarī causing enjoyment karotīti karaḥ, fem.karī,bhogasya karī

bhogakarī ;fem. ī-ending, nom., singular,

qualifying vidyā

yaśaḥsukhakarī causing fame and karotīti karaḥ, fem.karī, yaśaśca

well-being, happiness sukhaṃ ca, yaśassukhe, tayoḥ karī

yaśaḥsukhakarī ; fem. ī-ending, nom.,

singular, qualifying vidyā

gurūṇām of the elders/preceptors guru, u-ending, masc., gen.plural

guruḥ elder/preceptor/mentor guru, u-ending, nom.singular

bandhujanaḥ kith and kin bandhuścāyaṃ janaḥ, a karmadhāraya

compound, a-ending, masc., nom., singular, collective

videśagamane while travelling abroad videśeṣu gamanam videśagaman,

tasmin; a-ending, neuter, locative

singular

parā supreme ā-ending, feminne, nom.singular

qualifying vidyā

devatā deity ā-ending, feminne, nom.singular

qualifying vidyā

rājasu amongst kings rājan ,n -ending, masculine, plural

pūjyate is worshipped/revered root pūja pūjāyām, to worship, passive honoured form, laṭlakāra (with 'yak'), atmanepadī, Third Person singular, Passive voice

na no/ not Particle of negation, an indeclinable

hi verily, certainly indeclinable

dhanaṃ (here) material wealth a-ending, neuter, nominative, singular

vidyāvihīnaḥ one devoid of learning viśeṣeṇa hīnaḥ vihīnaḥ, vidyayā vihīnaḥ

vidyāvihīnaḥ; a-ending, masc., nom. singular

paśuḥ cow /beast/ savage u-ending, masc., nom.singular in

corcord with vidyāvihīnaḥ

PROSE ORDER

vidyā nāma narasya adhikaṃ rūpam (adhikaṃ) pracchannaguptaṃ dhanaṃ, vidyā bhogakarī yaśaḥsukhakarī vidyā gurūṇāṃ guruḥ, vidyā videśagamane bandhujanaḥ, vidyā parā devatā rājasu vidyā pūjyate, bandhujano na hi dhanaṃ, vidyāvihīnaḥ paśuḥ

GIST

Learning, verily, is (the cause of) the radiant appearance of man, the wealth that is jealously protected; Learning ensures fame and well-being, Learning is the mentor of all mentors; Learning is one's kith and kin in strange lands, Learning, indeed, is the supreme deity...it is Learning, certainly not material wealth, that is revered among kings; a person devoid of Learning is but a beast.

Nobility

1. आरम्भगुर्वी क्षयिणी क्रमेण लघ्वी पुरा वृद्धिमती च पश्चात् ।

दिनस्य पूर्वार्द्धपरार्द्धभिन्ना छायेव मैत्री खलसज्जनानाम् ॥

ārambhagurvī kṣayiṇī krameṇa laghvī purā vṛddhimatī ca paścāt |

dinasya pūrvārddhaparārddhabhinnā chāyeva maitrī khalasajjanānām ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

ārambhagurvī, kṣayiṇī, krameṇa, laghvī, purā, vṛddhimatī, ca, paścāt, dinasya, pūrvārddhaparārddhabhinnā, chāyā, iva, maitrī, khalasajjanānām.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

ārambhagurvī great to begin with ārambhe gurvī (guru, fem.), tatpuruṣa

compoundī-ending, fem., nominative, singular, qualifying chāyā and maitrī

kṣayiṇī waning, decaying kṣayo'syāstīti kṣayī - kṣayin (n-ending)+ fem.suffix - kṣayiṇī, ī-ending, fem. nom., singular, qualifying chāyā and maitrī

krameṇa gradually a-ending, masc., Inst., singular. Some

regard this as an indeclinable

laghvī small, insignificant laghu+fem.suffix, ī-ending, fem. nom., singular, qualifying chāyā and maitrī

purā earlier on, initially an indeclinable

vṛddhimatī thriving vṛddhi + matup + ī, fem.nom.,singular, qualifying chāyā and maitrī

ca and /also/ as well as. A collective conjunction primarily meaning "and"

paścāt later/ thereafter/ An indeclinable. Some consider it as an

afterwards ablative singular ending

dinasya of or pertaining to day a-ending, neuter, gen. singular

pūrvārddha- divided/differing a tatpuruṣa compound.

parārddhabhinnā pūrvaścāyamardhaśceti pūrvārdhaḥ, paraścāyamardhaśceti parārddhaḥ, pūrvārdhaśca parārddhaśceti

pūrvārddhaparārddhau,tayorbhinnā

pūrvārddhaparārddhabhinnā. Qualifies chāyā and maitrī

chāyā shade/shadow ā-ending,fem., nom., singular

iva such as/ as it were an indeclinable expressive of

likeness/similarity; a similative.

maitrī friendship mitrasya bhāvaḥ, ī-ending, fem. nom.

singular

khalasajjanānām of the wicked and A dvandva compound. khalāśca

of the noble sajjanāśca khalasajjanāḥ, teṣām.

short-a-ending, masc., gen. plural.

PROSE ORDER

dinasya pūrvārddhaparārddhabhinnā chāyā iva, khalasajjanānām maitrī, ārambhagurvī, krameṇa kṣayiṇī, purā laghvī paścāt ca vṛddhimatī (bhavati).

GIST

Just like the shadow of the day, differing in the forenoon and the afternoon, even so are the friendships forged by the wicked and the noble (respectively) - the one thrives in the beginning only to wane gradually and the other, insignificant to begin with, flourishes subsequently.

2. उदये सविता रक्तो रक्तश्चास्तमये तथा ।

सम्पत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता।।

udaye savitā rakto raktaścāstamaye tathā |

sampattau ca vipattau ca mahatāmekarūpatā ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

udaye, savitā, raktaḥ, raktaḥ, ca astamaye, tathā, sampattau, ca, vipattau, ca, mahatām, ekarūpatā

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

udaye upon rising a-ending, masc., loc. singular

savitā the Sun ṛ-ending(ऋकारान्त), masc. nom.

singular

raktaḥ ruddy a-ending, masc., nom. singular,

qualifying savitā

ca and /also/ as well as. a collective conjunction primarily

meaning "and"

astamaye upon setting/falling a-ending, masc., loc. singular

tathā likewise an indeclinable.

sampattau during fortune i-ending,fem., loc. singular

vipattau during misfortune i-ending,fem., loc. singular

ekarūpatā a state of having the ekam rūpam ekarūpam, tasya bhāvaḥ

same form tattā; ā-ending, fem., nom.,singular

PROSE ORDER

savitā udaye raktaḥ tathā astamaye ca raktaḥ; mahatām sampattau ca vipattau ca ekarūpatā.

GIST

The Sun is ruddy upon rising and stays ruddy while setting as well; Likewise, the noble remain stable whether

there be fortune or there be misfortune.

3.छायामन्यस्य कुर्वन्ति तिष्ठन्ति स्वयमातपे ।

फलन्त्यपि परार्थाय वृक्षाः सत्पुरुषा इव ॥

chāyāmanyasya kurvanti tiṣṭhanti svayamātape |

phalantyapi parārthāya vṛkṣāḥ satpuruṣā iva ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

chāyām, anyasya, kurvanti, tiṣṭhanti, svayam, ātape, phalanti, api, parārthāya, vṛkṣāḥ, satpuruṣāḥ, iva

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

chāyām shade( as object in the ā-ending, fem., acc., singular

sentence)

anyasya of or for others a-endng, masc., gen. singular

kurvanti make/provide root kṛ (ḍukṛñ, karaṇe) to do,

laṭlakāra, Third Person, plural

tiṣṭhanti stay/remain root sthā(ṣṭhā gatinivṛttau), lit.'to

cease movement', stay put ; laṭlakāra

Third Person, plural

svayam oneself an indeclinable

ātape in the heat(of the sun) a-ending, masc., loc., singular

without shade or shelter

phalanti bear fruit, fructify root phala niṣpattau, to bring forth,

laṭlakāra,Third Person, plural

api also/even, sometimes has an indeclinable

other semantic nuances

parārthāya for the benefit of others pareṣām arthaḥ parārthaḥ, tasmai.

A tatpuruṣa compound; a-ending,

masc.,Dat., singular

vṛkṣāḥ trees a-ending, masc.,nom., plural

satpuruṣāḥ noble persons santaścaite puruṣāśca, a

karmadhāraya compound; a-ending,

masc.,nom. plural

iva such as/ as it were an indeclinable expressive of

likeness /similarity; a similative.

PROSE ORDER

vṛkṣāḥ satpuruṣā iva anyasya chāyām kurvanti svayam ātape tiṣṭhanti parārthāya phalanti api.

GIST

Trees, like noble men, provide shade for others and themselves remain in the scorch; they even bear fruits for others' benefit .

(Note: Here, deviating from the norm, the goodness of noble men is taken for granted and the trees are compared to them.It is more usual in literature,for trees to serve as the standard of comparison for men.)

4. प्रारभ्यते न खलु विघ्नभयेन नीचैः प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विरमन्ति मध्याः ।

विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः प्रारब्धमुत्तमजना न परित्यजन्ति ॥

prārabhyate na khalu vighnabhayena nīcaiḥ

prārabhya vighnavihatā viramanti madhyāḥ |

vighnaiḥ punaḥ punarapi pratihanyamānāḥ

prārabdhamuttamajanā na parityajanti ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

prārabhyate, na, khalu, vighnabhayena, nīcaiḥ, prārabhya, vighnavihatāḥ, viramanti, madhyāḥ, vighnaiḥ, punaḥ- punaḥ, api, pratihanyamānāḥ, prārabdham, uttamajanāḥ, na, parityajanti.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

prārabhyate is begun root rabha( rābhasye- to hurry)preceded by prefixes pra and ā, laṭlakāra

(with yak), ātmane., Third Person,

singular, Passive

na no/ not Particle of negation, an indeclinable

khalu emphasis an indeclinable used to determine or

emphasise something.

vighnabhayena for fear of obstacles vighnāt bhayaḥ vighnabhayaḥ tasmāt, a

tatpuruṣa compound; a-ending, masc.,

Inst. Singular.

nīcaiḥ by the lowly or gutless a-ending, masc., Inst. plural

prārabhya having begun indeclinable past particple;

pra+ā+rabha+lyap

vighnavihatāḥ having been hit by hurdles viśeṣeṇa hatāḥ vihatāḥ, vighnaiḥ vihatāḥ vighnavihatāḥ, a-ending, masc., nom.,

plural, qualifying madhyāḥ

viramanti cease/ withdraw vi+rama,laṭlakāra,parasmai.,Third

Person, plural

madhyāḥ the middle/average persons a-ending, masc., nom., plural

vighnaiḥ by obstacles a-ending, masc., Inst., plural

punaḥ punaḥ again & again/ repeatedly indeclinables

api even/ also, has other an indeclinable

semantic nuances such as

'despite' as here

pratihanyamānāḥ (persons) being struck by present passive participle,

prati+han+ya+śānac, a-ending,

masc. nom., plural, qualifying

uttamajanāḥ

prārabdham that which is begun past passive participle - pra+ā+rabh+kta, a-ending, masc./neut., acc., singular

uttamajanāḥ the noble/high-minded uttamāścaite janā iti uttamajanāḥ, a

people karmadhāraya compound

parityajanti foresake/abandon pari+tyaja, laṭlakāra,parasmai., Third

Person, plural

PROSE ORDER

nīcaiḥ vighnabhayena na prārabhyate khalu; madhyāḥ prārabhya vighnavihatāḥ viramanti; uttamajanāḥ vighnaiḥ punaḥ punaḥ pratihanyamānāḥ api prārabdham na parityajanti

GIST

Thegutless do not even embark on an enterprisefor fear of hurdles; the average persons begin but abandon midway when faced with obstacles. the high-minded ones, despite being hindered by blocks time and again, never give up on what they have once undertaken!

5. विपदि धैर्यमथाभ्युदये क्षमा सदसि वाक्पटुता युधि विक्रमः ।

यशसि चाभिरुचिर्व्यसनं श्रुतौ प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् ॥

vipadi dhairyamathābhyudaye kṣamā sadasi vākpaṭutā yudhi vikramaḥ |

yaśasi cābhirucirvyasanaṃ śrutau prakṛtisiddhamidaṃ hi mahātmanām ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

vipadi, dhairyam, atha, abhyudaye, kṣamā, sadasi, vākpaṭutā, yudhi, vikramaḥ, yaśasi, ca, abhiruciḥ, vyasanam, śrutau, prakṛtisiddham, idam, hi, mahātmanām

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

vipadi during times of misfortune d-ending, fem., loc., singular

dhairyam courage/forttude dhīrasya bhāvaḥ; a-ending, neut.,

nom., singular

atha thereafter/further; Has an indeclinable

many semantic nuances

abhyudaye during times of fortune/ abh+udaya; a-endng, masc., loc.,

upliftment /advancement singular

kṣamā forbearance ā-ending, fem., nom.,singular

sadasi in an assembly/gathering sadas- s-ending, neut., loc., singular

vākpaṭutā gift of the gab/ eloquence/ vāci paṭuḥ vākpaṭuḥ, tattā, ā-ending,

expertise in rhetoric fem., singular

yudhi in battle yudh, dh-ending, fem.,loc.,singular

vikramaḥ valour a-ending, masc., nom.,singular

yaśasi in fame s-ending, neut., loc., singular

ca and /also/ as well as. a collective conjunction primarily

meaning "and"

abhiruciḥ interest/proclivity/yearning i-ending, fem., nom., singular

vyasanam longing/craving a-endng, neut., nom.,singular

śrutau in Learning of the i-ending,fem., loc., singular

Scriptures

prakṛtisiddham innate/inborn prakṛtyā siddham, a-endng, neut., nom.,

singular qualifying 'idam'

idam this m-ending, neut., nom., singular

hi verily, certainly indeclinable

mahātmanām of the high-minded mahānścasau ātmā ca, karmadhāraya

compound, n-ending, masc., gen., plural

PROSE ORDER

vipadi dhairyam, abhyudaye kṣamā sadasi vākpaṭutā yudhi vikramaḥ yaśasi abhiruciḥ atha ca śrutau vyasanam - idaṃ hi mahātmanām prakṛtisiddham

GIST

Fortitude in times of crises, forbearance in plentitude, eloquence in a gathering and courage in battle,a penchant for fame and finally a craving for Scriptural learning - all this, is inborn of the noble.

Importance of Assiduity

1. उद्यमेन हि सिद्ध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः।

न हि सुप्तस्य सिंहस्य प्रविशन्ति मुखे मृगाः ॥

udyamena hi siddhyanti kāryāṇi na manorathaiḥ|

na hi suptasya siṃhasya praviśanti mukhe mṛgāḥ ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

udyamena, hi, siddhyanti, kāryāṇi, na, manorathaiḥ, na, hi, suptasya, siṃhasya, praviśanti, mukhe, mṛgāḥ.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

udyamena with industry or assiduity a-ending, neuter,

Instrumental,singular

hi verily, certainly, only indeclinable

siddhyanti are achieved root sidhu, saṃraddhau,

parasmai,laṭlakāra,

Third Person, plural

kāryāṇi tasks, goals a-ending, neuter, Nominative, plural

na no/ not Particle of negation, an

indeclinable

manorathaiḥ with wishful thinking / manasaḥ rathāḥ manorathāḥ,

daydreams taiḥ, tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, masc., Inst. Plural

suptasya of the sleeping svap+kta, past participle,

a-ending, masc., Genitive,

singular in concord with 'siṃhasya' which it qualifies.

siṃhasya of the lion a-ending, masc., Gen., singular

praviśanti enter root viś with the prefix pra,

parasmai., laṭlakāra, Third Person, plural

mukhe in the mouth a-ending, neut., locative, singular

mṛgāḥ deers / animals of prey a-ending, masc., Nom., plural

PROSE ORDER

udyamena hi kāryāṇi siddhyanti manorathaiḥ na; suptasya siṃhasya mukhe mṛgāḥ na hi praviśanti.

GIST

Only with assiduity and hard-work can goals be realised, not with mere day-dreams;Deers do not enter the mouth of a sleeping lion all on their own.

2. आलस्यं हि मनुष्याणां शरीरस्थो महारिपुः ।

नास्त्युद्यमसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति ॥

ālasyaṃ hi manuṣyāṇāṃ śarīrastho mahāripuḥ |

nāstyudyamasamo bandhuḥ kṛtvā yaṃ nāvasīdati ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

ālasyam, hi, manuṣyāṇām, śarīrasthaḥ mahāripuḥ, na, asti, udyamasamaḥ, bandhuḥ, kṛtvā, yam, na avasīdati

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

ālasyam Laziness/ lethargy/ alasasya bhāva ālasyam;

procrastination a-ending, neut., Nom., singular

hi verily, certainly,only indeclinable

manuṣyāṇām of human beings a-ending, masc., Genitive, plural

śarīrasthaḥ that which is residing śarīre tiṣṭhatīti śarīrasthaḥ,

in the body a-ending, masc., Nom.,

singular, qualifying mahāripuḥ

mahāripuḥ great enemy mahāṃścāsau ripuśca,

a karmadhāraya compound,

u-ending, masc., Nom., singular

na no/ not Particle of negation, indeclinable

asti is root ‘as’, to be, laṭlakāra,

Third Person, singular

udyamasamaḥ equal to/ similar to/ udyamasya samaḥ, a tatpuruṣa comparable to compound, a-ending, masc.nom. singular, qualifying 'bandhuḥ'

bandhuḥ kith & kin u-ending, masc., Nominative,

singular

kṛtvā on having done root kṛ (ḍukṛñ karaṇe) + primary

suffix past participle ktvā;

indeclinable.

yaṃ which t-ending pronoun, neut. singular

avasīdati repents /perishes ava+ sad, laṭlakāra, Third Person,

singular

PROSE ORDER

manuṣyāṇām ālasyam hi śarīrasthaḥ mahāripuḥ (asti) udyamasamaḥ (etādṛśaḥ) bandhuḥ nāsti yam kṛtvā (naraḥ) na avasīdati.

GIST

Lethargy is verily the greatest enemy residing in one's own body; there is no kith or kin comparable to industry, on doing which one does not perish or even repent.

3. न दैवमिति सञ्चिन्त्य त्यजेदुद्योगमात्मनः ।

अनुद्यमेन कस्तैलं तिलेभ्यः प्राप्तुमर्हति ?!

na daivamiti sañcintya tyajedudyogamātmanaḥ |

anudyamena kastailaṃ tilebhyaḥ prāptumarhati ?!

WORDS IN THE VERSE

na, daivam, iti, sañcintya, tyajet, udyogam, ātmanaḥ, anudyamena, kaḥ, tailaṃ, tilebhyaḥ, prāptum, arhati

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

na no/ not Particle of negation, an

indeclinable

daivam Fate/ Providence a-ending, neuter, Nom.,

Singular

iti Thus / in this manner indeclinable with other

nuances in meaning

sañcintya having thought or decided root citi with prefix sam

and primary suffix lyap,

indeclinable

tyajet may renounce/abandon root tyaja hānau,

parasmai., Injunctive

Mood, ( vidhiliṅlakāra),

III Person, singular

udyogam Industry/ assiduity/ hard work a-ending, masc., Acc.,

Singular

ātmanaḥ one's own n-ending, masc., Gen.,

singular

anudyamena without effort na udyamaḥ anudyamaḥ,

tena, nañ tatpuruṣa compound, a-ending,

Neut., Inst., singular

kaḥ who? kim, m-ending, masc.,

Nom., singular (Pronoun)

tailam oil tileṣu bhavam tailam,

a-ending, neut. nom. singular

tilebhyaḥ from sesame seeds a-ending, masc., ablative,

plural

prāptum to obtain pra+āp+tumun (infinitive)

indeclinable

arhati able / deserving root arha pūjāyām,

parasmai., laṭlakāra, III Person, singular

PROSE ORDER

daivamiti sañcintya ātmanaḥ udyogam na tyajet; kaḥ, anudyamena tilebhyaḥ, tailaṃ prāptum arhati ?

GIST

Deciding thus, (that everything is pre-ordained by) Fate, one may never abandon his/her own industry;(After all), who can wish to obtain oil from sesame seeds without putting in any effort?

4. योजनानां सहस्रं तु शनैर्गच्छेत् पिपीलिका ।

अचलन्वैनतेयोऽपि पदमेकं न गच्छति ॥

yojanānāṃ sahasraṃ tu śanairgacchet pipīlikā |

acalanvainateyo:'pi padamekaṃ na gacchati ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

yojanānām, sahasram, tu, śanaiḥ, gacchet, pipīlikā, acalan, vainateyaḥ, api, padam, ekam, na, gacchati

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

yojanānām of miles a/ā - ending, masc./fem./neuter

A yojana/yojanā is a (ā-ending only in fem.), Gen.,

measure of particular plural

distance, presumably

that covered by a vehicle

in harness. According to

different calculations, the

English quivalent of one

yojana is as varied as two

and a half miles, nine miles

and eighteen miles !

sahasram thousand a-ending, Neut., nom., singular

tu even/ indeed/ verily/ an indeclinable having

surely etc. many semantic nuances,

usually a determinant

śanaiḥ slowly, gradually an indeclinable

gacchet may go root gamlṛ gatau, vidhiliṅlakāra,

III Person singular

pipīlikā an ant ā-ending, fem., Nom., singular

acalan without moving na calan = acalan,

nañ +cal+śatṛ, t-ending,

masc., Nom., Singular

vainateyaḥ Garuḍa, the divine eagle Vinatāyāḥ apatyaṃ pumān,

vainateyaḥ - Vinatā's son;

a-ending, masc., nom. singular

api even/ also, has other an indeclinable

semantic nuances

padam step/a foot forward a-ending, Neut., Acc., singular

ekaṃ one a-ending, Neut., Acc., singular

qualifying 'padam'

na no/ not Particle of negation, indeclinable

gacchati goes/ advances root gamlṛ gatau, laṭlakāra,

III Person, singular

PROSE ORDER

pipīlikā tu yojanānām sahasram śanaiḥ gacchet ;(kintu) vainateyaḥ api acalan ekaṃ padam na gacchati

GIST

Indeed, an ant may traverse the distance of several thousand miles, walking slowly; but, without moving, even Vanateya cannot advance a step forward!

5. रत्नैर्महाब्धेस्तुतुषुर्न देवा न लेभिरे भीमविषेण भीतिम्।

सुधां विना न प्रययुर्विरामं न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः॥

ratnairmahābdhestutuṣurna devā na lebhire bhīmaviṣeṇa bhītim|

sudhāṃ vinā na prayayurvirāmaṃ na niścitārthādviramanti dhīrāḥ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

ratnaiḥ, mahābdheḥ, tutuṣuḥ, na, devāḥ na lebhire bhīmaviṣeṇa bhītim, sudhām, vinā, na, prayayuḥ, virāmam, na, niścitārthāt,viramanti, dhīrāḥ.

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

ratnaiḥ by the gems or jewels a-ending, Neut., Inst., plural

mahābdheḥ of the Great Ocean mahāṃścasau abdhiśca,

karmadhāraya compound;

i-ending, masc., Gen.singular

tutuṣuḥ were pleased root tuṣa prītau liṭlakāra III, plural

na no/ not Particle of negation, indeclinable

devāḥ the gods a-ending, masc., Nom., plural

lebhire got root labh (ḍulabhaṣ prāptau),

liṭlakāra, III Person, plural

bhīmaviṣeṇa by the fierce poison bhīmaṃ cedaṃ viṣaviṣṃ ca, a karmadhāraya compound,

a- ending, neuter, Inst., singular

bhītim fear i-ending, fem., Acc., Singular

sudhām Ambrosia ā-ending, fem., Acc., singular

vinā without indeclinable; governs the II/III/V

cases

prayayuḥ attained pra+yā prāpaṇe, liṭlakāra,

III Person, plural

virāmaṃ rest, cease(noun) a-ending, masc., Acc., singular

niścitārthāt from the resolved niścitaḥ arthaḥ

objective niścitārthaḥ, tasmāt, niścitārthāt

a karmadhāraya compound;

a-ending, masc., Ablative,

singular

viramanti cease(verb) vi+ramu krīḍāyām, laṭlakāra,

III Person, plural

dhīrāḥ the courageous/ a-ending, masc., Nom. plural

persons with strength of

character/ fortitudinous

PROSE ORDER

devāḥ mahābdheḥ ratnaiḥ na tutuṣuḥ, bhīmaviṣeṇa bhītim na lebhire, sudhām vinā virāmam na prayayuḥ; dhīrāḥ niścitārthāt na viramanti.

GIST

The godsderivedneither satisfaction from the precious gems nor fright from the fierce poison, of the great ocean; they did not rest until they attained the ambrosia. (Indeed), the Courageous never waver from their resolve.

[NOTE : This verse has reference to the mythology of churning of the Milk-Ocean by the Devas and the Asuras, using the mandara mountain for the purpose, with the Serpent Vāsukī as the rope. Before they finally churned out the Ambrosia, for which the entire arduous exercise was undertaken, they had pulled out many treasures as well as the most dreaded venom kālakūṭa].

Altruism

परोपकारः कर्त्तव्यः प्राणैरपि धनैरपि।

परोपकारजं पुण्यं न स्यात्क्रतुशतैरपि ॥

paropakāraḥ karttavyaḥ prāṇairapi dhanairapi |

paropakārajaṃ puṇyaṃ na syātkratuśatairapi ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

paropakāraḥ, karttavyaḥ, prāṇaiḥ, api, dhanaiḥ, api, paropakārajam, puṇyam, na, syāt, kratuśataiḥ, api

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

paropakāraḥ Helping others/ parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ Altruistc act paropakāraḥ,

a tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, Masc., Nom.,

singular

karttavyaḥ should be done root kṛ (ḍukṛñ karaṇe) + primary suffix tavyat, a-ending, masc.,

Nom., singular qualifying paropakāraḥ

prāṇaiḥ with life a-ending, masc., Inst.,

always plural

api even/ also, has other an indeclinable

semantic nuances

dhanaiḥ with wealth a-ending, Neut., Inst., plural

paropakārajam that accruing from paropakārāt jāyate iti

paropakāra paropakārajam, a-ending,

Neut., Nom., singular,

qualfying 'puṇyam'

puṇyam merit - religious and a-ending, Neut., Nom., singular

spiritual

na no/ not Particle of negation, indeclinable

syāt may be root as, vidhiliṅlakāra, III Person

singular

kratuśataiḥ with hundred kratūnām śatam, kratuśatam,

sacrificial rites taiḥ,a tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, Neut., Inst., plural.

PROSE ORDER

prāṇaiḥ api dhanaiḥ api paropakāraḥ karttavyaḥ; paropakārajam puṇyam kratuśataiḥ api na syāt

GIST

Altruistic acts should be performed even with risk to one's life and wealth; the merit accrued through altruistic deeds may not be gained even with hundreds of religious sacrifices.

[In this verse, there is, what may be called, a sequential error - duṣkramatvadoṣa - in as much as 'dhana' - wealth, is enumerated after prāṇa - life-breath, in the context of readiness to risk loss, implying thereby, quite wrongly, that wealth is dearer than life]

2. अष्टादशपुराणेषु व्यासस्य वचनद्वयम्।

परोपकारः पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम् ॥

aṣṭādaśapurāṇeṣu vyāsasya vacanadvayam|

paropakāraḥ puṇyāya pāpāya parapīḍanam ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

aṣṭādaśapurāṇeṣu, vyāsasya, vacanadvayam, paropakāraḥ, puṇyāya, pāpāya, parapīḍanam

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

aṣṭādaśapurāṇeṣu in the eighteen purāṇas a-ending, Neut., Loc. plural

vyāsasya of Vyāsa a-ending, Masc., Gen., singular

vacanadvayam a pair of advice/ vacanasya dvayam

a couplet

paropakāraḥ Helping others/ parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ

Altruistc act paropakāraḥ, tatpuruṣa compound, a-ending,

Masc., Nom., singular

puṇyāya for merit - religious a-ending, Neut., Dative., singular

and spiritual

pāpāya for sin/ for demerit - a-ending, Neut., Dat., singular

religious & spiritual

parapīḍanam torment or harrassment pareṣām pīḍanam,

of others parapīḍanam

a tatpuruṣa compound, a-ending,

Neut., Nom.,singular

PROSE ORDER

aṣṭādaśapurāṇeṣu vyāsasya vacanadvayam - paropakāraḥ puṇyāya parapīḍanam pāpāya.

GIST

In all the eighteen purāṇas, Vyāsa has but two pieces of advice - altruism earns divine merit and tormenting others entails sin.

3.श्रोत्रं श्रुतेनैव न कुण्डलेन, दानेन पाणिर्न तु कङ्कणेन ।

विभाति कायः करुणापराणां परोपकारेण न चन्दनेन ॥

śrotraṃ śrutenaiva na kuṇḍalena, dānena pāṇirna tu kaṅkaṇena |

vibhāti kāyaḥ karuṇāparāṇāṃ paropakāreṇa na candanena ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

śrotram, śrutena, eva, na, kuṇḍalena, dānena, pāṇiḥ, na, tu, kaṅkaṇena, vibhāti, kāyaḥ, karuṇāparāṇām, paropakāreṇa, na, candanena .

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

śrotram ear/s a-ending, Neut., Nom., singular

śrutena by Learning a-ending, Neut., Inst., singular

( lit. 'listening'),

especially of Scriptures

eva only/ alone an indeclinable

na no/ not Particle of negation, indeclinable

kuṇḍalena by ear-ornament a-ending, Neut., Inst., singular

dānena by giving in charity a-ending, Neut., Inst., singular

pāṇiḥ hand/palm a-ending, Masc., Nom., singular

tu even/ indeed/ verily/ an indeclinable having many surely etc. semantic nuances:

usually, a determinant

kaṅkaṇena by a bangle or a-ending, Neut., Inst., singular

wrist ornament

vibhāti shines forth/ vi+bhā, to shine, laṭlakāra,

becomes worthy III Person, singular

kāyaḥ body a-ending, masc., Nom., singular

karuṇāparāṇām of the compassionate a-ending, masc., Gen., plural

paropakāreṇa by helping others/ parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ

by altruistc acts paropakāraḥ, tena a tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, Masc.,

Instrumental, singular

candanena with sandal a-ending, Neut., Inst., singular

PROSE ORDER

śrotraṃ śrutena eva na kuṇḍalena, pāṇiḥ dānena na tu kaṅkaṇena karuṇāparāṇām kāyaḥ paropakāreṇa na candanena vibhāti.

GIST

The ear becomes worthy by its listening capacity (especially, of the Scriptures), and not because of the ornament that adorns it, the hand is worthy by its capacity to give, surely not by the bracelet, for the truly compassionate persons, the entire body shines forth by altruistic deeds and not by the anointment of sandal paste.

4. परोपकाराय फलन्ति वृक्षाः परोपकाराय वहन्ति नद्यः ।

परोपकाराय दुहन्ति गावः परोपकारार्थमिदं शरीरम् ॥

paropakārāya phalanti vṛkṣāḥ paropakārāya vahanti nadyaḥ |

paropakārāya duhanti gāvaḥ paropakārārthamidaṃ śarīram ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

paropakārāya, phalanti, vṛkṣāḥ, paropakārāya, vahanti, nadyaḥ ,paropakārāya, duhanti, gāvaḥ, paropakārārtham, idam, śarīram .

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

paropakārāya for helping others/ parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ

for altruistc act paropakāraḥ, tasmai a tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, Masc.,

Dative, singular

phalanti bear fruits root phala niṣpattau, laṭlakāra,

III Person, Plural

vṛkṣāḥ trees a-ending, masc., Nom., plural

vahanti flow root vah prāpaṇe, laṭlakāra,

III Person, Plural

nadyaḥ rivers ī-ending, Fem., Nom., Plural

duhanti lactate root duh prapūraṇe, laṭlakāra,

III Person, Plural

gāvaḥ cows o-ending, Fem.(here), Nom.,

plural

paropakārārtham for helping others parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ

paropakāraḥ, tatpuruṣa compound; thereafter,

paropakārāya iti paropakārārtham --

avyayībhāva compound in the sense of the Dative case

Indeclinable

idaṃ this m-ending pronoun, Neut., Nom.,

singular

śarīram body a-ending, neut., Nom., singular

PROSE ORDER

vṛkṣāḥ paropakārāya phalanti nadyaḥ paropakārāya vahanti gāvaḥ paropakārāya duhanti, idaṃ śarīram paropakārārtham .

GIST

The treesbear fruits for the benefit of others, the rivers flow for the benefit of others, the cows produce milk for the benefit of others, this body is (itself meant) for others' benefit.

5. रविचन्द्रौ घना वृक्षा नद्यो गावश्च सज्जनाः ।

एते परोपकाराय युगेऽस्मिन् देवैर्विनिर्मिताः ॥

ravicandrau ghanā vṛkṣā nadyo gāvaśca sajjanāḥ |

ete paropakārāya yuge'smin devairvinirmitāḥ ||

WORDS IN THE VERSE

ravicandrau, ghanāḥ, vṛkṣāḥ, nadyaḥ, gāvaḥ, ca, sajjanāḥ, ete, paropakārāya, yuge, asmin, devaiḥ, vinirmitāḥ

WORD FAMILIARISATION

WORD MEANING TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

ravicandrau the sun and the moon raviśca candraśca ravicandrau

a dvandva compound, a-ending,

Nom., dual.

ghanāḥ the clouds a-ending, masc., Nom., plural

vṛkṣāḥ the trees a-ending, masc., Nom., plural

nadyaḥ the rivers ī-ending, Fem., Nom., Plural

gāvaḥ the cows o-ending, masc./fem., Nom., plural

ca and /also/ as well as a collective conjunction

primarily meaning "and"

sajjanāḥ good men santaścaite janāśca, a

karmadhāraya compound;

a-endng, masc.,nom. plural

ete these t-ending pronoun, Masc.,

Nom., plural

paropakārāya for helping others/ parebhyaḥ upakāraḥ

for altruistc act paropakāraḥ, tasmai a tatpuruṣa compound,

a-ending, Masc.,

Dative, singular

yuge in yuga a-ending, Masc., Loc., singular

asmin in this('kali' yuga) m-ending pronoun, Masc., Loc.,

singular qualifying 'yuge'

devaiḥ by the gods a-ending, Masc.,Inst., plural

vinirmitāḥ specially created viśeṣeṇa nirmitāḥ vinirmitāḥ

a-ending, Masc.,Nom., plural

PROSE ORDER

ravicandrau ghanā vṛkṣā nadyo gāvaḥ sajjanāḥ ca ete asmin yuge paropakārāya devaiḥ vinirmitāḥ.

GIST

The sun and the moon, the clouds, the trees, the rivers and the noble-minded people, all these were specially created by the gods for the purpose of altruism in this (kali)yuga.

[NOTE- In this verse, instead of yuge'smin devairvinirmitāḥ in the last quarter, there is a variant yuge devena nirmitāḥ in which case an additional 'yuge' is superimposed to give the sense of 'yuge-yuge' - 'in each yuga'. However, the present reading seems more plausible, since the kaliyuga is the one which is in dire need of altruism]

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