kta-ktavatupratyayau - The Primary Suffixes, kta and ktavatu

The Primary Suffixes, kta and ktavatu are added to roots to form Past participles. The suffix Kta is generally used in the passive voice whereas Ktavatu is used in the active. These suffixes, when joined to roots, form nominal stems which are then declined in all genders, numbers and cases. The stems ending in kta are declined as any akārānta masculine word such as Rāma in the Masculine and ākārānta femininesuch as latā in the Feminine and akārānta neuter word such as vana in the Neuter. In usage, the gender and number of the object determines the gender and number of the ktānta word which takes Neuter gender when used impersonally.

The words ending in ktavatupratyaya, likewise, follow the gender, number and case of the Subject they qualify. In Masculine, the formations are like that of the stem "bhavat", in Feminine like that of "nadī" and in Neuter like that of "jagat".

In the sentence, ' bālaha pahitavān', - 'the boy read the lesson', the subject "bāla" is in the Masculine Nominative singular and so is the ktavatvanta word "pahitavān" . The object pāha is in accusative singular. The predicate "pahitavān", though performing the function of a verb, is actually a nominal word. The suitable forms of the root 'as' or 'bhū' are to be understood along with such words, according to the context. In the given instance, the idea of 'asti', though not expressly mentioned, is understood.

In the passive sentence, 'bālena pāha pahita'- 'The lesson was read by the boy', the subject 'bālena' is in the Instrumental case, the object 'pāha' is in the masculine nominative case singular and the ktāntapredicate 'pahita' follows the object in gender, case and number.

In impersonal usage, the ktānta word takes the neuter gender - 'bālena hasitam' - It was laughed by the boy.

NOTE In the Sanskrit version The bhāve prayoga is not mentioned.

More examples

Examples in all genders of words ending in ktavatu -

Chātra Nyāyaviaya pahitavān - The pupil studied the subject of Logic

Bālikā grāma gatavatī - The little girl went to the village

Yāna calitavat - The vehicle moved

Examples in all genders of words ending in kta -

Rāmea ha likhita - The lesson was written out by Rāma

kavinā kavitā racitā - The poem was composed by the poet

guruā gīta śrutam - The song was heard by the teacher

śiśunā suptam - It has been slept by the child

Fromthe above, it can be seen that the ktavatu is used in the active Voice while the ktapratyaya is used in the Passive Voice and the Impersonal. The following are some more examples.

ktavatu usage kta usage

Rāma praśna pṣṭavān - Rāmea praśnapṣṭa

Rāma asked a question a question was asked by Rāma

bālakau dugdha pītavantau bālakābhyā dugdha pītam

The two little boys drank milk milk was drunk by the two little boys

gurava carcā ktavanta gurubhi carcā k

The elders held discussion discussion was held by the elders

mahilā nadī prāptavatya mahilābhi nadī prāptā

The ladies reached the river The river was reached by the ladies

Ramā kathā śrutavatī Ramayā kathā śrutā

Ramā heard the story The story was heard by Ramā

dhenū vatsau spṛṣṭavatyau dhenubhyā vatsau sapṛṣṭau

The two cows touched the two calves The two calves were touched by the two cows

vana pupitavat vanena pupitam

The jungle bloomed It was bloomed by the jungle

mitre patra pahitavatī mitrābhyā patra pahitam

The two friends read the letter The letter was read by the two friends

payāsi śuddhīktavanti payobhi śuddhīktam

The waters purified It was purifified by the waters

ṛṣi ātmajñānam upadiṣṭavān ṛṣiā ātmajñānam upadiṣṭam

The Seers preached the realization of Self The realization of Self was preached by the Seers

ṣṭranetāra vimānena sañcaritavantaṣṭranetbhi vimānena sañcaritam

The national leaders travelled by plane It was travelled by plane by the national leaders

Sudakiā dhenum anugatavatī sudakiayā dhenu anugatā

Sudakiā followed the cow The cow was followed bySudakiā

sa nagara dṛṣṭavān tena nagaram dṝṣṭam

He saw the city The city was seen by him

te pitara sevitavanta tai pitā sevita

They served father Father was served by them

sā bhagavanta pūjitavatī tayā bhagavān pūjita

She worshipped God God was worshipped by her

rājā prajā rakitavān rājñā prajā rakitā

The king protected the subjects The subjects were protected by the king

tau guruā saha bhāitavantau tābhyā guruā saha bhāitam

They both spoke with the teacher It was spoken with the teacher by them both

tau guru bhāitavanta tābhyā guru bhāita

They both spoke to the teacher The teacher was spoken to by them both

te bālike manasi cintitavatyau tābhyā bālikābhyā manasi cintitam

The two littlte girls thought in their minds It was thought in their minds by the two littlte girls

bhaktau kāśīpurī dṛṣṭavantau bhaktābhyā kāśīpurī dṛṣṭā

The two devotees saw Kāśīpurī Kāśīpurī was seen by the two devotees

vidvāsa sabhām alaktavanta vidvadbhi sabhā alak

The scholars adorned the assembly The assembly was adorned by the scholars.

The declension of the masculine stem 'pahitavat' ending in takāra

Singular Dual Plural

Nominative pahitavān pahitavantau pahitavanta

Vocative he pahitavan ! he pahitavantau ! he pahitavanta !

Accusative pahitavantam pahitavantau pahitavata

Instrumental pahitavatā pahitavadbhyām pahitavadbhi

Dative pahitavate pahitavadbhyām pahitavadbhya

Ablative pahitavata pahitavadbhyām pahitavadbhya

Genitive pahitavata pahitavato pahitavatām

Locative pahitavati pahitavato pahitavatsu

Usage in different Cases

1. Acaarya grantha pahitavān.

The teacher read the book.

ācāryau grantha pahitavantau

The two teachers read the book.

ācāryā grantham pahitavanta

all the teachers read the book.

2. he pahitavan ! kpayā māmapi pāhaya .

O Learned One ! kindly teach me also.

he pahitavantau ! kpayā māmapi pāhayatam.

O you two learned ones ! kindly teach me also.

he pahitavanta kpayā māmapi paahayata.

O all ye learned ones ! kindly teach me also.

3. pahitavantam ācārya sarve bahu mānayanti.

All the people respect the learned teacher.

pahitavantau ācāryau sarve bahumānayanti.

All the people respect the two learned teachers.

pahitavata ācāryān sarve bahumānayanti.

All the people respect the learned teachers.

4. pahitavatā chātrea saha Rāma bhāate.

Rāma speaks with the learned pupil.

pahitavadbhyā chātrābhyā saha Rāma bhāate.

Rāma speaks with the two learned pupils.

pahitavadbhya chātrai saha Rāma bhāate.

Rāma speaks with all the learned pupils.

5. samyak pahitavate chātrāya pradhānādhyapaka pāritoika yacchati.

The Principal gives prize to the well-learned student.

samyak pahitavadbhyā chātrābhyā pradhānādhyapaka pāritoika yacchati.

The Principal gives prize to the two well-learned students.

samyakpahitavadbhya chātrebhya pradhānādhyāpaka pāritoika yacchati.

The Principal gives prize to all the well-learned students.

6. pahitavta puruāj janā jñāna labhante.

People gain knowledge from the learned man.

pahitavadbhyā puruābhyā janā jñāna labhante.

People gain knowledge from the two learned men.

pahitavdbhaya puruebhya janā jñāna labhante.

People gain knowledge from all the learned men.

7. pahitavata śiyasya ācārya ka?

Who is the Teacher of that learned pupil?

pahitavato śiyayo ācārya ka ?

Who is the Teacher of those two learned pupils?

pahitavatā śiāmācārya ka ?

Who is the Teacher of all those learned pupils?

8. pahitavati jane saskāra dśyate.

Culture is seen in that learned person.

pahitavato janayo saskāra dśyate.

Culture is seen in those two learned persons.

pahitavatsu janeu saskāra dśyate .

Culture is seen in all those learned persons.

The declension of the Feminine stem 'vanditavatī' ending in īkāra

Singular Dual Plural

Nominative vanditavatī vanditavatyau vanditavatya

Vocative he vanditavati ! he vanditavatyau ! he vanditavatya !

Accusative vanditavatīm vanditavatyau vanditavatī

Instrumental vanditavatyā vanditavatībhyām vanditavatībhi

Dative vanditavatyai vanditavatībhyām vanditavatībhya

Ablative vanditavatyā vanditavatībhyām vanditavatībhya

Genitive vanditavatyā vanditavatyovanditavatīnām Locative vanditavatyām vanditavatyovanditavatīu

Usage in different Cases

1. bālikā adhyāpikā vanditavatī.

The little girl greeted the teacher respectfully.

bālike adhyāpikā vanditavatyau.

The two little girls greeted the teacher respectfully.

bālikā adhyāpikā vanditavatya.

All the little girls greeted the teacher respectfully.

2. he vanditavati ! mama ghe vasa.

O ye who has greeted ! Do stay in my house.

he vanditavatyau mama ghe vasatam.

O ye both who have greeted ! Do stay in my house.

he vanditavatya mama ghe vasata.

O ye all who have greeted ! Do stay in my house.

3. vanditavatī putrī dṛṣṭvā pitā pramudita.

Father was elated on seeing the respectfully greeting daughter.

vanditavatyau putryau dṛṣṭvā pitā pramudita.

Father was elated on seeing the two respectfully greeting daughters.

vanditavatī putrī dṛṣṭvā pitā pramudita.

Father was elated on seeing all the respectfully greeting daughters.

4.vanditavatyā bhaktayā saha sajjana bhāate.

The good man talks to the lady devotee who respectfully greeted him.

vanditavatībhyā bhaktābhyā saha sajjana bhāate.

The good man talks to the two lady devotees who respectfully greeted him.

vanditavatībhi bhaktābhi saha sajjana bhāate.

The good man talks to all the lady devotees who respectfully greeted him.

5.Guru vanditavatyai ghiyai āśīrvāda dadātu.

Let the Guru impart words of Blessing to the homemaker who respectefully greeted him.

Guru vanditavatībhyā ghiībhyām āśīrvāda dadātu.

Let the Guru impart words of Blessing to the two homemakers who respectefully greeted him.

Guru vanditavatībhya ghiībhya āśīrvāda dadātu.

Let the Guru impart words of Blessing to all the homemakers who respectefully greeted him.

6. vanditavatyā vanitāyā bhūaāni apatan.

The ornaments fell down from the lady who greeted.

vanditavatībhyā vanitābhyā bhūaāni apatan.

The ornaments fell down from two ladies who greeted.

vanditavatībhya vanitābhya bhūaāni apatan.

The ornaments fell down from all the ladies who greeted.

Note; The example in Sanskrit has been slightly modified in this version

7. vanditavatyā vddhāyā gha kutrāsti ?

Where is the house of the old woman who greeted ?

vanditavatyo vddhayo gha kutrāsti ?

Where is the house of the two old women who greeted ?

vanditavatīnā vddhānā gha kutrāsti ?

Where is the house of all the old women who greeted ?

8. vanditavatyā bhaktāyām īśvara dayām pradarśayati.

God shows mercy on the lady who propitiated with devotion.

vanditavatyo bhaktayo īśvara dayām pradarśayati.

God shows mercy on the two ladies who propitiated with devotion.

vanditavatīu bhaktāsasu īśvara dayām pradarśayati.

God shows mercy on all the ladies who propitiated with devotion.

The declension of the neuter stem 'dṛṣṭavat' ending in takāra

Singular Dual Plural

Nominative dṛṣṭavat dṛṣṭavatī dṛṣṭavanti

Vocative he dṛṣṭavat ! he dṛṣṭavatī ! he dṛṣṭavanti !

Accusative dṛṣṭavat dṛṣṭavatī dṛṣṭavanti Instrumental dṛṣṭavatā dṛṣṭavadbhyām dṛṣṭavadbhi

Dative dṛṣṭavate dṛṣṭavadbhyām dṛṣṭavadbhya

Ablative dṛṣṭavata dṛṣṭavadbhyām dṛṣṭavadbhya

Genitive dṛṣṭavata dṛṣṭavato dṛṣṭavatām Locative dṛṣṭavati dṛṣṭavato dṛṣṭavatsu

Usage in different Cases

1. mama mitra calacitra dṛṣṭavat.

My friend saw the film.

mama mitre calacitra dṛṣṭavatī.

Two of my friends saw the film.

mama mitrāi calacitra dṛṣṭavanti.

All my frinds saw the film.

2. he dṛṣṭavanmitra ! calacitrakathā vada.

O you friend who saw! Narrate the story of the film.

he dṛṣṭavatī mitre ! calacitrakathā vadatam.

Both friends who saw !Narrate the story of the film.

he dṛṣṭavanti mitrāi !calacitrakathā vadata.

All the friends who saw !Narrate the story of the film.

3. dṛṣṭavanmitra sa sadā smarati.

He always remembers the friend who met.

dṛṣṭavatī mitre sa sadā smarati.

He always remembers the two friends who met.

dṛṣṭavanti mitrāi sa sadā smarati.

He always remembers all the friends who met.

4. dṛṣṭavatā mitrea smtam.

It was remembered by the friend who met.

dṛṣṭavadbhyā mitrābhyā smtam.

It was remembered by the two friends who met.

dṛṣṭavadbhi mitrai smtam.

It was remembered by all the friends who met.

5. dṛṣṭavate mitrāya pustaka dadāti.

He gives a book to the friend who met.

dṛṣṭavadbhyā mitrābhyā pustaka dadāti.

He gives a book to both the friends who met.

dṛṣṭavadbhya mitrebhya pustaka dadāti.

He gives a book to all the friends who met.

6. dṛṣṭavata mitrāt ki labdham?

What was gained from the friend who met ?

dṛṣṭavadbhyā mitrābhyā ki labdham?

What was gained from the two friends who met ?

dṛṣṭavadbhya mitrebhya ki labdham?

What was gained from all the friends who met ?

7. dṛṣṭavata mitrasya ghamanviyāmi.

I look for the house of the friend who met.

dṛṣṭavato mitrayo ghamanviyāmi.

I look for the house of the two friends who met.

dṛṣṭavatā mitrāā ghamanviyāmi.

I look for the house of all the friends who met.

8. dṛṣṭavati mitre viśvāso jāta .

Confidence has arisen in the friend who met.

dṛṣṭavato mitrayoviśvāso jāta .

Confidence has arisen in the two friends who met.

dṛṣṭavatsu mitreu viśvāso jāta .

Confidence has arisen in all the friends who met.

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