Gaṇacakram - The groups of Verbal Roots

bhvādyadādī juhotyādih divādih svādireva ca .

tudādiśca rudhādiśca tanādikrīcurādayaḥ

Those beginning bhoo & ad

as also juhoti, div, su, tud

rudh & tan & krī & cur

know thee, as the ten root-groups

Theverbal roots in Sanskrit are classified into ten groups on the basis of their distinct conjugations. The roots that fall under the same category will have similar conjugational patterns which will differ drastically from those of roots from a different group. Knowing to which group a particular verbal root belongs, therefore, goes a long way in understanding its conjugational operations and forms. The roots are sequentially listed in each group which is known by the name of the root that figures first in the list. The ten groups, thus, are -

Bhvādigaṇaḥ            - Group of roots at the head of which is "  bhū"

Adādigaṇaḥ -                                    "                                               "ad "

Juhotyādigaṇaḥ -                "                                               "juhoti" (hu)              

Divādigaṇaḥ -                      "                                               " div"

Svādigaṇaḥ -                                    "                                               "su"

Tudādigaṇaḥ -                     "                                               " tud "

Rudhādigaṇaḥ -                   "                                               "rudh"

Tanādigaṇaḥ -                      "                                               "tan "

Kryādigaṇaḥ             -                       "                                               "krī "

and, Curādigaṇaḥ -             "                                               "cur"

  1. 1.Conjugation of Roots


1. Root vṛdh , ātmanepadī, laṭlakāra

                                                           Ekavacanam            dvivacanam          bahuvacanam

Prathamapuruṣaḥ    Third Person         vardhate            vardhete              vardhante

Madhyamapuruṣaḥ  Second Person     vardhase          vardhethe             vardhadhve

Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First Person       vardhe                vardhāvahe         vardhāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person          vavṛdhe                       vavṛdhāte               vavṛdhire

Second Person        vavṛdhiṣe                  vavṛdhāthe             vavṛdhisve          

First Person               vavṛdhe                      vavṛdhivahe                       vavṛdhimahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           vardhitā                      vardhitārau                vardhitāraḥ

Second Person        vardhitāse                  vardhithāsāthe          vardhitādhve

First Person               vardhitāhe                 vardhitāsvahe           vardhitāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           vardhiṣyate                   vardhiṣyete            vardhiṣyante

Second Person        vardhiṣyase                  vardhiṣyethe          vardhiṣyadhve

First Person               vardhiṣye                   vardhiṣyāvahe          vardhiṣyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           vardhatām                 vardhetām                 vardhantām

Second Person        vardhasva                  vardhetām                 vardhadhvam           

First Person               vardhai                       vardhāvahai              vardhāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           avardhata                  avardhetām               avardhanta

Second Person        avardhathāḥ              avardhethām            avardhadhvam

First Person               avardhe                      avardhāvahi              avardhāmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           vardheta                     vardheyātām             vardheran

Second Person        vardhethāḥ                vardheyāthām           vardhedhvam           

First Person              vardheya                    vardhevahi               vardhemahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           vardhiṣīṣṭa                    vardhiṣīyāstām     vardhiṣīran

Second Person        vardhiṣīṣṭhāḥ               vardiṣīyāsthām     vardhiṣīdhvam

First Person               vardhiṣīya                     vardhiṣīvahi           vardhiṣīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           avardhiṣṭa                     avardhiṣātām         avardhiṣata

Second Person        avardhiṣṭhāḥ                avardhiṣāthām       avardhiṣadhvam

First Person               avardhiṣi                       avardhiṣvahi          avardhiṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           avardhiṣyata                avardhiṣyetām       avardhiṣyanta

Second Person        avardhiṣyathāḥ            avardhiṣyethām     avardhiṣyadhvam

First Person               avardhiṣye                    avardhiṣyāvahi      avardhiṣyāmahi

                                      Root labh, ātmanepadī, laṭ                                          

                                    Singular                        Dual                       Plural

Third Person            labhate                       labhete                 labhante

Second Person        labhase                      labhethe                labhadhve

First Person            labhe                           labhāvahe             labhāmahe


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person             lebhe                       lebhāte                   lebhire

Second Person        lebhiṣe                    lebhāthe                 lebhidhve

First Person            lebhe                       lebhivahe                 lebhimahe


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person              labhdhā                    labhdhārau               labhdhāraḥ

Second Person         labhdhāse              labhdhāsāthe          labhdhādhve

First Person              labhdhāhe               labhdhāsvahe         labhdhāsmahe


Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person            labhatām                    labhetām                   labhantām

Second Person        labhasva                    labhetām                    labhadhvam 

First Person               labhai                         labhāvahai                labhāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           alabhata                     alabhetām                 alabhanta

Second Person        alabhathāḥ                alabhethām               alabhadhvam

First Person               alabhe                        alabhāvahi                alabhāmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           labheta                       labheyātām               labheran

Second Person        labhethāḥ                  labheyāthām             labhedhvam 

First Person               labheya                      labhevahi                   labhemahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           lapsīṣṭa                         lapsīyāstām           lapsīran

Second Person        lapsīṣṭhāḥ                    lapsīyāsthām          lapsīdhvam

First Person               lapsīya                          lapsīvahi                lapsīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person          alabdha                      alapsātām                  alapsata

Second Person        alabdhāḥ                   alapsāthām               alabdhvam

First Person               alapsi                         alapsvahi                  alapsmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           alapsyata                   alapsyetām                alapsyanta

Second Person        alapsyathāḥ              alapsyethām             alapsyadhvam

First Person               alapsye                      alapsyāvahi               alapsyāmahi

Root ruc, ātmanepadī, - laṭ

                             Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           rocate                       rocete                        rocante

Second Person       rocase                      rocethe                     rocadhve

First Person              roce                          rocāvahe                   rocāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           ruruce                          rurucāte                   rurucire

Second Person        ruruciṣe                     rurucāthe                rurucidhve          

First Person               ruruce                         rurucivahe              rurucimahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           rocitā                          rocitārau                     rocitāraḥ

Second Person        rocitāse                      rocitāsāthe                 rocitādhve

First Person               rocitāhe                      rocitāsvahe                rocitāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           rociṣyate                    rociṣyete                    rociṣyante

Second Person        rociṣyase                   rociṣyethe                  rociṣyadhve

First Person               rociṣye                       rociṣyāvahe               rociṣyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           rocatām                      rocetām                      rocantām

Second Person        rocasva                      rocthām                      rocadhvam   

First Person               rocai                           rocāvahai                   rocāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           arocata                       arocetām                    arocanta

Second Person        arocathāḥ                  arocethām                 arocadhvam

First Person               aroce                          arocāvahi                   arocāmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           roceta                         roceyātām                  roceran

Second Person        rocethāḥ                     roceyāthām               rocedhvam   

First Person               roceya                        rocevahi                    rocemahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           rociṣīṣṭa                        rociṣīyāstām          rociṣīran

Second Person        rociṣīṣṭhāḥ                   rociṣīyāsthām         rociṣīdhvam

First Person               rociṣīya                         rociṣīvahi               rociṣīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           arociṣṭa                         arociṣātām              arociṣata

Second Person        arociṣyaṭhāḥ                arociṣāthām           arociḍhvam

First Person               avardhiṣi                       avardhiṣvahi         avardhiṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           arociṣyata                     arociṣyetām                        arociṣyanta

Second Person        arociṣyathāḥ               arociṣyethām                     arociṣyadhvam

First Person               arociṣye                        arociṣyāvahi                      arociṣyāmahi

2. Adādigaṇaḥ

Root - ās, ātmanepadī, laṭ

                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āste                                āsāte                                  āsate

Second Person        āse                                 āsāthe                                 āsadhve

First Person               āse                                 āsvahe                                āsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsāñcakre                     āsāñcakrāte                       āsāñcakrire

Second Person        āsāñcakṛṣe                   āsāñcakrāthe                     āsāñcakṛḍhvahe

First Person               āsāñcakre                     āsāñcakṛvahe                    āsāñcakṛmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsitā                               āsitārau                              āsitāraḥ

Second Person        āsitāse                          āsitāsāthe                           āsitādhve

First Person               āsitāhe                          āsitāsvahe                          āsitāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           āsiṣyate                        āsiṣyete                 āsiṣyante

Second Person        āsiṣyase                       āsiṣyethe                āsiṣyadhve

First Person               āsiṣye                            āsiṣyāvahe             āsiṣyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āstām                         āsātām                                 āsantām

Second Person        āsva                             āsāthām                               āsadhvam

First Person               āsai                              āsāvahai                              āsāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsta                             āstām                                   āsata

Second Person        āsthāḥ                         āsāthām                               ādhvam

First Person               āsi                                āsvahi                                  āsmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsīta                            āsīyātām                                āsīran

Second Person        āsīthāḥ                       āsīyāthām                              āsīdhvam

First Person               āsīya                           āsīvahi                                   āsīmahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           āsiṣīṣṭa                          āsiṣīyāstām           āsiṣīran

Second Person        āsiṣīṣṭhāḥ                    āsiṣīyāsthām          āsiṣīdhvam

First Person               āsiṣīya                           āsiṣīvahi                āsiṣīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           āsiṣṭa                             āsiṣātām                āsiṣata

Second Person        āsiṣṭhāḥ                        āsiṣāthām               āsidhvam

First Person               āsiṣi                              āsiṣvahi                  āsiṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsiṣyata                        āsiṣyetām                           āsiṣyanta

Second Person        āsiṣyathāḥ                    āsciṣyethām                       āsiṣyadhvam

First Person               āsiṣye                           āsiṣyāvahi                          āsiṣyāmahi

3. Juhotyādigaṇaḥ

Root dā, ātmanepadī, laṭ

                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           datte                           dadāte                                    dadate

Second Person        datse                          dadāthe                                  dadhve

First Person               dade                           dadvahe                                 dadmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           dade                           dadāte                                    dadire

Second Person        dadiṣe                                    dadāthe                                  dadidhve

First Person               dade                           dadivahe                                dadimahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           dātā                            dātārau                                   dātāraḥ

Second Person        dātāse                        dātāsāthe                               dātādhve

First Person               dātāhe                        dātāsvahe                              dātāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           dāsyate                         dāsyete                  dāsyante

Second Person        dāsyase                        dāsyethe                 dāsyadhve

First Person               dāsye                            dāsyāvahe              dāsyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           dattām                           dadātām                              dadatām

Second Person        datsva                                       dadāthām                           daddhvam

First Person               dadai                           dadāvahai                           dadāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           adatta                            adadātām                          adadata

Second Person        adatthāḥ                        adadāthām                         adaddhvam

First Person               adadi                           adadvahi                              adadmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           dadīta                            dadīyātām                          dadīran

Second Person        dadīthāḥ                        dadīyāthām                        dadīdhvam

First Person               dadīya                                       dadīvahi                              dadīmahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           dāsīṣṭa                          dāsīyāstām            dāsīran

Second Person        dāsīṣṭhāḥ                     dāsīyāthām             dāsīdhvam

First Person               dāsīya                                      dāsīvahi                  dāsīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           adita                              adiṣātām                 adiṣata

Second Person        adiṭhāḥ                          adiṣāthām               adidhvam

First Person               adiṣi                              adiṣvahi                  adiṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           adāsyata                       adāsyetām                          adāsyanta

Second Person        adāsyathāḥ                  adāsyethām                       adāsyadhvam

First Person               adāsye                          adāsyāvahi                         adāsyāmahi

4. Divādigaṇaḥ

Root jan, ātmanepadī, laṭ

Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           jāyate                            jāyete                                 jāyante

Second Person        jāyase                                       jāyethe                                jāyadhve

First Person               jāye                                jāyāvahe                             jāyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           jajñe                              jajñāte                                jajñire

Second Person        jajñiṣe                                      jajñāthe                              jajñidhve

First Person               jajñe                              jajñivahe                            jajñimahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           janitā                             janitārau                             janitāraḥ

Second Person        janitāse                         janitāsāthe                          janitādhve

First Person               janitāhe                         janitāsvahe                         janitāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           janiṣyate                       janiṣyete                janiṣyante

Second Person        janiṣyase                      janiṣyethe               janiṣyadhve

First Person               janiṣye                          janiṣyāvahe            janiṣyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           jāyatām                         jāyetām                              jāyantām

Second Person        jāyasva                         jāyethām                             jāyadhvam

First Person               jāyai                             jāyāvahai                             jāyāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           āsta                                āstām                                 āsata

Second Person        āsthāḥ                           āsāthām                              ādhvam

First Person               āsi                                āsvahi                                  āsmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           jāyeta                            jāyeyātām                          jāyeran

Second Person        jāyethāḥ                        jāyeyāthām                         jāyedhvam

First Person               jāyeya                                     jāyevahi                               jāyemahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           ajaniṣṭa                         ajaniṣātām             ajaniṣata

Second Person        ajaniṣṭhāḥ                     ajaniṣāthām           ajanidhvam

First Person               ajaniṣi                                      ajaniṣvahi               ajaniṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           ajaniṣyata                     ajaniṣyetām                        ajaniṣyanta

Second Person        ajaniṣyathāḥ               ajaniṣyethām                     ajaniṣyadhvam

First Person               ajaniṣye                        ajaniṣyāvahi                      ajaniṣyāmahi

6. Tudādigaṇaḥ

Root mṛ, ātmanepadī, laṭ

                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           mriyate                          mriyete                               mriyante

Second Person        mriyase                         mriyethe                              mriyadhve

First Person              mriye                             mriyāvahe                           mriyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           mamāra                         mamratuḥ                           mamruḥ

Second Person        mamartha                     mamrathuḥ                        mamra

First Person               mamāra                         mamriva                             mamrima


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           martā                             martārau                            martāraḥ

Second Person        martāsi                          martāsthaḥ                         martāstha

First Person               martāsmi                     martāsva                              martāsma


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           mariṣyati                       mariṣyataḥ             mariṣyanti

Second Person        mariṣyasi                      mariṣyathaḥ                      mariṣyatha

First Person               mariṣyāmi                     mariṣyāvaḥ                         mariṣyāmaḥ


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           mriyatām                       mriyetām                            mriyantām

Second Person        mriyasva                       mriyethām                           mriyadhvam

First Person               mriyai                         mriyāvahai                           mriyāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           amriyata                        amriyetām                           amriyanta

Second Person        amriyathāḥ                   amriyethām                        amriyadhvam

First Person               amriye                           amriyāvahi                          amriyāmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           mriyeta                          mriyeyātām                        mriyeran

Second Person        mriyethāḥ                    mriyeyāthām                       mriyedhvam

First Person               mriyeya                       mriyevahi                             mriyemahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           mṛṣīṣṭa                       mṛṣīyāstām               mṛṣīran

Second Person        mṛṣīṣṭāḥ                    mṛṣīyāsthām             mṛṣīdhvam

First Person               mṛṣīya                                   mṛṣīvahi                    mṛiṣīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           amṛta                             amṛṣātām               amṛṣata

Second Person        amṛṭhāḥ                         amṛṣāthām             amṛḍhvam

First Person               amṛṣi                          amṛṣvahi                 amṛṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           amariṣyat                      amariṣyatām                      amariṣyan

Second Person        amariṣyaḥ                     amariṣyatam                      amariṣyata

First Person               amariṣyam                    amariṣyāva                         amariṣyāma

7. Rudhādigaṇaḥ

Root bhuj, ātmanepadī, laṭ

                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bhuṅkte                      bhuñjāte                     bhuñjate

Second Person        bhuṅkṣe                     bhuñjāthe                  bhuṅdhve

First Person               bhuñje                        bhuñjāvahe               bhuñjāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bubhuje                         bubhujāte                           bubhujire

Second Person        bubhujiṣe                      bubhujāthe                         bubhujidhve

First Person               bubhuje                         bubhujivahe                       bubhujimahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bhoktā                           bhoktārau                           bhoktāraḥ

Second Person        bhoktāse                       bhoktāsāthe                       bhoktādhve

First Person               bhoktāh                       bhoktāsvahe                       bhoktāsmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bhokṣyate                     bhokṣyete                           bhokṣyante

Second Person        bhokṣyase                    bhokṣyethe                         bhokṣyadhve

First Person               bhokṣye                        bhokṣyāvahe                     bhokṣyāmahe


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bhuṅktām                      bhuñjātām                         bhuñjatām

Second Person        bhuṅkṣva                      bhuñjāthām                        bhuṅdhvam

First Person               bhunajai                      bhunajāvahai                      bhunajāmahai


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           abhuṅkta                       abhuñjātām                        abhuñjata

Second Person        abhuṅkthāḥ                  abhuñjāthām                      abhuṅdhvam

First Person               abhuñji                          abhuñjvahi                         abhuñjmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           bhuñjīta                      bhuñjīyātām                                    bhuñjīran

Second Person        bhuñjīthāḥ                  bhuñjīyāthām                      bhuñjīdhvam

First Person               bhuñjīya                      bhuñjīvahi                            bhuñjīmahi


                                    Singular                          Dual                       Plural

Third Person           bhukṣīṣṭa                   bhukṣīyāstām           bhukṣīran

Second Person        bhukṣīṣṭāḥ                bhukṣīyāsthām        bhukṣīdhvam

First Person               bhukṣīya                   bhukṣīvahi                bhukṣīmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                        Plural

Third Person           abhukta                         abhukṣātām          abhukṣata

Second Person        abhukṭhāḥ                    abhukṣāthām         abhugdhvam

First Person               abhukṣi                        abhukṣvahi             abhukṣmahi


                                    Singular                        Dual                                    Plural

Third Person           abhokṣyata                   abhokṣyetām                    abhokṣyanta

Second Person        abhokṣyethāḥ              abhokṣyethām                  abhokṣyadhvam

First Person               abhokṣye                      abhokṣyāvahi                    abhokṣyāmahi

  1. 2.Bhvādigaṇaḥ - Atmanepadaprakriyā ( Forms with meanng and examples)

labh (labhe) laṭ (varttamāne - for present action)

                                                             ekavacanam           dvivacanam       bahuvacanam

Prathamapuruṣaḥ    Third Person     labhate                  labhete                   labhante

Madhyamapuruṣaḥ  Second Person labhase                labhethe                labhadhve

Uttamapuruṣaḥ           First Person     labhe                     labhāvahe           labhāmahe

Prathamapuruṣaḥ - Third Person

Though the word 'prathama' means 'first', the Sanskrit Prathamapuruṣa actually corresponds to the English 'Third' Person and viceversa . The examples, thus, would be

Third Person

saḥ pustakaṃ labhate -       He gets the book     

chātrau modakaṃ labhete -Two pupils get the sweets

bālakāḥ vastrāṇi labhante - The litttle boys ( three or more )get clothes.

Second Person

tvaṃ puraskāraṃ labhase                          - You get prize

yuvāṃ padmaśrīpuraskāraṃ labhethe     -You both get Padmaśrī Award

yūyam annaṃ labhadhve                           - You all get meals

First Person

ahaṃ tāḍanaṃ labhe-                     I get beating !

āvām āmaraphalaṃ labhāvahe -   We both get mangoes

vayaṃ nūtanavastrāṇi labhāmahe -We all get new clothes

More Examples

saha liṭ (parokṣe - for remote past action)

                                     ekavacanam         dvivacanam       bahuvacanam

Prathamapuruṣaḥ    Third Person     sahe                      sehaate                   sehire

madhyamapuruṣaḥ  Second person   sehishe                sehaathe             sehidhve uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person           sehe                        sehivahe           sehimahe

Third Person

Rāmaḥ vane duḥkhaṃ sahe -                    Rāma bore much miseries in the forest

Kṛṣṇabalarāmau śaiśave kaṣṭaṃ sehāte-            Kṛṣṇa & Balarāma bore a lot of sufferings in Childhood

Nāyakāḥ svātantryasamare tyāgaṃ sehire- Leaders bore a lot of sacrifices during the Freedom Movement

Second Person

tvaṃ kaṣṭaśataṃ sehiṣe                  -You endured a hundred troubles

yuvāṃ duḥkhaṃ sehāthe                - You both endured sorrow

yūyaṃ bhubhukṣāṃ sehidhve       - You all endured hunger

First Person

ahaṃ bālye kaṣṭaṃ sehe                               - I endured sufferings in Childhood

āvāṃ śaiśave pipāsāṃ sehivahe                 - We both endured thirst in childhood

vayaṃ pūrvajanmani dāridryaṃ sehimahe - All of us suffered penury in our last births

sev luṭ ( anadyatane bhaviṣye - Future action pertaining not to the day of narration)

                                                   Singular                Dual                            Plural

Prathamapuruṣaḥ    Third Person       sevitā                sevitārau                   sevitāraḥ madhyamapuruṣaḥ            Second person   sevitāse           sevitāsāthe             sevitādhve uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person           sevitāhe         sevitāsvahe            sevitāsmahe

Third Person

putraḥ pitaraṃ sevitā -         Son will serve Father

śiṣyaḥ guruṃ sevitārau -     both the pupils will serve the perceptor

sainikāḥ deśaṃ sevitāraḥ- the soldiers will serve the country

Second Person

tvaṃ pitāmahaṃ sevitāse -                         you will serve grandfather  

yuvāṃ bhattārau sevitāsāthe -                   you both will serve your husbands

yūyaṃ vijñānasaṃsthāṃ sevitādhve -      all of you will serve a scientific organisation

First Person

aham adhyāpakam sevitā               I will serve my Teacher

āvāṃ devaṃ sevitāsvahe               We both will serve God

vayam samājaṃ sevitāsmahe        We will all serve the Community

kamu kaantau - kamu meaning to desire - lṛṭ (for future action)

                                                                   Singular              Dual                            PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person       kāmayiṣyate       kāmayiṣyete         kāmayiṣyante Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person   kāmayiṣyasekāmayiṣyethe     kāmayiṣyadhve Uttamapuruṣaḥ           First person         kāmayiṣye             kāmayiṣyāvahe kāmayiṣyāmahe

Third Person

धनमोही धनम् कामयिष्यते - the avaricious one will covet money

चोरौ रत्नं कामयिश्येते        - the two thieves will long for the jewel

बालकाः मधुरं कामयिष्यन्ते - all little boys will yearn for sweets

Second Person

tvaṃ mokṣaṃ kāmayiṣyase                       - you will long for Salvation

yuvāṃ samskṛtapaṭhanaṃ kāmayiṣyethe- you both will desire Sanskrt learning

yūyaṃ netradānaṃ kāmayiṣyadhve         - all of you will wish for eye- donation

First Person

ahaṃ kāñcanaṃ na kāmayiṣye                    - I will not desire Gold

āvām atimohaṃ na kāmayiṣyāvahe             - We both will not desire excessive avarice

vayaṃ sarveṣām sukhaṃ kāmayiṣyāmahe - we will all desire everyone's happiness

dada daane -meaning giving loT( in the sense of command, request)

                                                                        Singular         Dual              PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          dadatām         dadetāṃ        dadantām         Madhyamapuruṣaḥ          Second person               dadasva         dadethāṃ     dadadhvam

Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person             dadai              dadāvahai     dadāmahai

Third Person

dhanikaḥ yācakāya dhanaṃ dadatām      - Let the affluent one give money to the beggar

bhavantau gurave dakśinṇāṃ dadetām   - both of you should give fees to the Teacher

adhyāpakāḥ chātrebhyaḥ vijñānaṃ dadantām - May the teachers impart specialised                                                                                knowledge to the students

Second Person

tvaṃ mātre vastraṃ dadasva                     -                you should provide clothes to Mother

yuvām bhāratadeśāya sevanaṃ dadethām - You both should provide service to the                                                                                              nation

yūyam pitre samrakṣaṇam dadadhvam- All of you should provide support to Father

First person

aha sasktāya sevana dadai            - I should provide service to Sanskrit

aha pahanāya pustaka dadāvahai - We both should provide books for studies

vaya mgasarakaāya protsāhana dadāmahe - all of us should provide    

                                                                                    encouragement to animal-  protection

aya gatau - meaning 'to go'

laṅ anadyatane bhūte( for past action not pertaining to the day of narration)

                                                                        Singular         Dual              Plural

Prathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          āyata              āyetām           āyanta         Madhyamapuruṣaḥ    Second person        āyathaḥ          āyethām        āyadhvam Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person                 āye                         āyāvahi          āyāmahi

Third Person

rāmaḥ vanam āyata                                                 - Rāma went to forest

ṛṣī parṇaśālām āyetām                                            The two sages went to the bower

chātrāḥ paṭhanayātrārtham dillīnagaram āyanta- the students went to Delhi on study                                                                                                tour

Second Person

tvaṃ keralān āyathāḥ                      - You went to Kerala

yuvāṃ mātulagṛham āyethām        - you both went to Uncle's house

yūyam āturālayam āyadhvam        - you all went to the hospital

First Person

ahaṃ videśam āye                           - I went abroad

āvāṃ mandiram āyāvahi                 - we both went to Temple

vayaṃ pustakālayam āyāmahi      - We all went to the Library

dada daane -meaning to give, vidhiliṅ( to entrust, request, pray. command etc)

                                                                        Singular         Dual              PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          dadeta            dadeyātām    daderan         Madhyamapuruṣaḥ Second person       dadethāḥ            dadeyāthām dadedhvam Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person               dadeya           dadevahi            dademahi

Third Person

ramā lekhanīṃ dadeta                                 - May Ramā give pen

chātrau pustakaṃ dadeyātām                    - May the two students give the books

mahilāḥ śiśubhyaḥ stanyaṃ dadyeran     - May women give breast- milk to infants

Second Person

tvaṃ putrebhyaḥ vastraṃ dadethāḥ          -           May you give clothes to the sons

yuvāṃ saṃskṛtapaṭhanāya protsāhanaṃ dadeyāthām - may yuo both give                                                                                                  encouragement to Sanskrit Learning

yūyam nirdhanāya rūpyakāṇi dadedhvam- may you all give money to the needy

First Person-

ahaṃ kanyādānārthaṃ suvarṇam dadeya - I may give gold for the girl's marriage

āvām nirdhanabālakasya paṭhanāya dhanam dadevahi-we both may give books for the                                                                                        studies of the poor boy

vayam devaprītyarthaṃ puṣpāṇi dademahi - We may give flowers for the propitiation of Gods

labha -to get, āśīrliṅ (Benediction)

                                                                        Singular         Dual                         PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person            lapsīṣṭa          lapsīyāstām               lapsīran Madhyamapuruṣaḥ           Second person               lapsīṣṭhāḥ      lapsīyāsthām             lapsīdhvam Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person               lapsīya             lapsīvahi                    lapsīmahi

Third Person

bhavān jīvane śāntiṃ lapsīṣṭa - Peace be to thee in life !

hariṇau yatheṣṭasañcārārthaṃ svātantryaṃ lapsīyāstām -      

Freedom be to the two deers for free movement !

janāḥ sukhajīvanāya uttamavṛttiṃ lapsīran -

Best jobs be to people for happy living !  

Second Person

tvaṃ jīvane ātmaniyantraṇaṃ lapsīṣṭhāḥ-           Self-Restraint be unto thee in life !

yuvāṃ sarvadā devaprītiṃ lapsīyāsthām -           Grace of God be unto ye both always !

yūyaṃ sarve ātmaśāntiṃ lapsīdhvam       -           Peace with Self be to ye all !                     

First Person

ahaṃ jīvane dhīratāṃ lapsīya                    Courage be mine in life !

āvāṃ pitṛvātsalyaṃ lapsīvahi                     Parent's love be unto both of us !

vayaṃ bahujanaprītiṃ lapsīmahi                          Popularity be ours !

seva - to serve, luṅ (sāmānyabhūte - General Past Tense)

                                                                        Singular         Dual                         Plural

Prathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          aseviṣṭa         aseviṣātām                aseviṣata Madhyamapuruṣaḥ            Second person       aseviṣṭāḥ       aseviṣāthām              asevidhvam Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person           aseviṣi            aseviṣvahi                 aseviṣmahi

Third Person

sureśaḥ jyeṣṭhabhrātaram aseviṣṭa- Suresha served his elder brother

pautrau pitāmaham aseviṣātam- the two grandsons served their grandfather

śiṣyāḥ gurum aseviṣata- All the students served the preceptor

Second Person

tvaṃ mātaram aseviṣṭāḥ - you served Mother

yuvāṃ mātāmahīm aseviṣāthām -you both served grandmother

yūyaṃ janmadeśam asevidhvam - you all served your Motherland

First Person

ahaṃ bharttāram aseviṣi - i served my husband

āvāṃ samājam aseviṣmahi - we both served the community

vayaṃ rugṇān aseviṣmahi - we all served the ailing.

saha sahane - to endure, lṛṅ (conditional mood)

                                                                        Singular          Dual                         PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person            asahiṣyata     asahiṣyetām            asahiṣyanta Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person               asahiṣyathāḥ            asahiṣyethām   asahiṣyadhvam Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person                      asahiṣye        asahiṣyāvahi         asahiṣyāmahi

Third Person

niṣādaḥ kaṣṭam asahiṣyata cet

madhu alapsyata -   Had the hunter endured suffering, he would ultimately have got the                                       nectar

yadi rājeśagaurīśau pāṭhyabhāram asahiṣyetām -Had Rajesh and Gaureesh endured tau parīkṣāyāmuttīrṇau abhaviṣyatām                         the burdenof Studies, they would

                                                                                   have passed the Examination.

krīḍakāḥ kaṭhinayatnam asahiṣyanta cet             -           Had the players endured hardwork olimpikpadakam alapsyanta                                  they would have won the Olympic


Second Person

tvam dīrghayātrāyāḥkaṣṭam asahiṣyathāḥ cet unnatavidyābhyāsam alapsyathāḥ

Had you borne the trouble of long commute, you would have gotten higher education

yuvām tiktauṣadham asahiṣyethāṃ cet rogamocanam alapsyethām

Had you both tolerated the sharp medicine, you would both have been relieved of the ailment.

yūyam paṭhanabhāram asahiṣyadhvaṃ cet unnativijayam alapsyadhvam

Had you all borne the burden of Studies, you would have been highly successful.

First Person

ahaṃ śaityam asahiṣye ced himālayārūḍhaḥ abhaviṣyam

Had I endured the cold, I could have climbed the Himalayas.

āvāṃ sāmpattikakaṣṭāni asahiśyāvahi ceddāmpatyaṃ sukhamayam abhaviṣyat Had we both endured the financial crisis, our marriage would have been blissful

vayam dhanāḍhyā abhaviṣyāma cedbubhukṣāṃ na asahiṣyāmahi

Had we all been rich, we would not have suffered hunger

  1. Parasmaipadī Roots

paṭha, to read aloud, laṭ, parasmaipadī, varttamāne(Simple Present Tense)

                                                                      Singular         Dual               Plural

Prathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          paṭhati                        paṭhataḥ         paṭhanti Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person        paṭhasi           paṭhataḥ         paṭhataḥ Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person                     paṭhāmi          paṭhāvaḥ        paṭhāmaḥ

Third Person

rāmaḥ saṃskṛtaṃ paṭhati                - Rama studies Sanskrit

bālau pustakaṃ paṭhataḥ               - The two boys read the book

chātrāḥ kathāṃ paṭhanti                   - The students read the story

Second Person

tvaṃ saṃskṛtaṃ paṭhasi     -           You study sanskrit

yuvāṃ pāṭhaṃ paṭhataḥ      -           You both study the lesson

yūyaṃ pustakaṃ paṭhata    -           All of you study the book

First Person

ahaṃ kavitāṃ paṭhāmi        -           I read the poem

āvāṃ lekhanaṃ paṭhāvaḥ   -          We both read the article

vayaṃ kathāṃ paṭhāmaḥ    -           We read the story

bhū, to be, liṭ-parokṣe( Past Perfect or remote past)

                                                                      Singular         Dual               PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          babhūva         babhūvatuḥ   babhūvuḥ Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person               babhūvitha    babhūvathuḥ babhūva Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person                    babhūva            babhūviva      babhūvima

Third Person

mama pitāmahaḥ rāṣṭrapatiḥ babhūva - My grandfather was the Presidentof the country

mama mātulau sainikau babhūvatuḥ   - my two uncles were soldiers

pūrvikāḥ vānararūpāḥ babhūvuḥ          - Our ancestors were like monkeys  

Second Person

tvaṃ śiśuḥ babhūvitha                    -           you were a baby

yuvāṃ bālakau babhūvathuḥ         -           you both were little boys

yūyam chātrāḥ babhūva                  -           you were all students

First Person

ahaṃ svapne nirdhano babhūva   - in the dream I became a pauper

āvāṃ svapne yātrikau babhūvitha- We both were travellers in the dream

vayaṃ svapne sampannāḥ babhūvima - we were all very rich in the dream

gamlṛ, to go - luṭ anadyatane bhāvini (First or Periphrastic Future or distant Future)

                                                                      Singular         Dual               PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          gantā              gantārau        gantāraḥ

Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person       gantāsi           gantāsthaḥ    gantāstha

Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person             gantāsmi        gantāsvaḥ      gantāsmaḥ

Third Person

bālakaḥ vidyālayaṃ gantā              - The child shall go to School

gurū mandiraṃ gantārau                 - The two Teachers shall go to Temple

kavayaḥ rājasabhāṃ gantāraḥ      - The poets shall go to the royal court

Second Person

tvaṃ dillīnagaraṃ gantāsi               - you shall go to Delhi

yuvām āpaṇaṃ gantāsthaḥ            - you both shall go to the market

yūyaṃ devālayaṃ gantāstha         - All of you shall go to Church

First Person

ahaṃ mātulasya gṛhaṃ gantāsmi- I shall go to my uncle's place

āvāṃ pustakālayam gantāsvaḥ     - We both shall go to the Library

vayaṃ kāryālayaṃ gantāsmaḥ      - we shall all go to the office

pā - to drink, lṛṭ ( second or Simple Future)

                                                                      Singular         Dual               PluralPrathamapuruṣaḥ     Third Person          pāsyati           pāsyataḥ        pāsyanti

Madhyamapuruṣaḥ   Second person       pāsyasi          pāsyathaḥ      pāsyatha

Uttamapuruṣaḥ         First person             pāsyāmi         pāsyāvaḥ       pāsyāmaḥ

Third Person             - Gītā jalaṃ pāsyati                          - Gita will drink water

                                    -chātrau kṣīraṃ pāsyataḥ                - The two students will drink Milk

                                    - vanitāḥ phalarasaṃ pāsyanti       - The ladies will drink juice

Second Person         - tvaṃ madhu pāsyati                      - you will drink nectar (wine)

                                    - yuvām amṛtaṃ pāsyathaḥ                        - you both will drink ambrosia

                                    - yūyaṃ nārikelajalaṃ pāsyatha    - you all will drink coconut water

First Person               - ahaṃ kṣīraṃ pāsyāmi                  - I will drink milk

                             - āvāṃ jalaṃ pāsyāvaḥ                  - We both will drink water

                                    - vayaṃ madhu pāsyāmaḥ             - we will all drink nectar

dṛś- to see, loṭ ( Imperative mood)

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           paśyatu          paśatām         paśyantu

madhyamapuruṣaḥ   second person        paśya             paśyatam       paśyata

uttamapuruṣaḥ         first person               paśyāni          paśyāva         paśyāma

Third Person             - chātraḥ pustakaṃ paśyatu - the student should see the book

                                    - bālike citram paśyatām - the two little girls should see the picture

                   - mahilāḥ dinapatraṃ paśyantu - the ladies should see the daily newspaper

Second Person         - tvaṃ guruṃ paśaya                       - You should see the Preceptor

                                    - yuvāṃ śāṭikāṃ paśyatam             - You both should see the sari

                                    - yūyaṃ pitaraṃ paśyata                 -           you should all see father

First Person               - ahaṃ calaccitram paśyāni                        -              I should see the movie

                   - āvāṃ saṅgaṇakayantraṃ paśyāva - We both should see the computer

                             - vayaṃ amarakośaṃ paśyāma -   we should all see Amarakośa

has – to laugh, laṅ anadyatane bhūte( Past imperfect)

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           ahasat            ahasatām       ahasan

madhyamapuruṣaḥ   second person        ahasaḥ           ahasatam       ahasata

uttamapuruṣaḥ         first person               ahasam          ahasāva         ahasāma

Third Person -           jānakī citraṃ dṛṣṭvā ahasat -

                                    Janaki laughed upon seeing the picture

                        -           pitarau phalitaṃ śrutvā ahasatām

                                    parents laughed upon hearing the forecast        

                                    sodarāḥ hastatāḍanaṃ kṛtvā ahasan

                                    the brothers claapped their hands and laughed

Second Person -      tvaṃ nāṭakaṃ dṛṣṭvā ahasaḥ

                                    you laughed on seeing the drama

                                    yuvāṃ calacitraṃ dṛṣṭvā ahasatam

                                    You both laughed after seeing the film

                                    yūyaṃ vānaraṃ dṛṣṭva ahasata

                                    You all laughed on seeing the monkey

First Person -            ahaṃ kathākelīṃ dṛṣṭvā ahasam

                                    I laughed on seeing the kathakali

                                    āvām hāsoktiṃ śrutvā ahasāva

                                    we both laughed upon hearing the joke

                                    vayaṃ krīḍāṃ dṛṣṭvā ahasāma

                                    we laughed on seeing the play

vas, to reside, vidhiliṅ

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           vaset               vasetām         vaseyuḥ

madhyamapuruṣaḥ   second person        vaseḥ             vasetam         vaseta

uttamapuruṣaḥ         first person               vaseyam        vaseva           vasema

Third Person     -     sumā keraleṣu vaset                                 Let suma live in Kerala

puruṣau tiruvanantapure vasetām

Let the two men reside in Tiruvanantapuram

                                    mrugāḥ vane vaseyuḥ Let the animals live in the forest

Secnd Person           - tvaṃ svagṛhe vaseḥ - you had better live in your house                                                         yuvāṃ mātulagṛhe vasetam                      you both must live in your                                                                                                             uncle's house

                                    yūyaṃ bhārate vaseta                             you all must reside in India

First Person               - ahaṃ chātrāvāse vaseyam                      I must stay in the hostel

                                       āvāṃ videśe vaseva                                 we both must reside                                                                                                                         abroad

                                       vayaṃ dillīnagare vasema                  we all must live in Delhi

sthā, to stay, āśīrliṅ

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           stheyāt           stheyāstām    stheyāsuḥ madhyamapuruṣaḥ   second person            stheyāḥ            stheyāstam    stheyāsta uttamapuruṣaḥ           first person                    stheyāsam     stheyāsva            stheyāsma

Third Person             - Rameśaḥ sasukhaṃ mandire stheyāt

                                    May ramesha remain happy in the Temple !

                                    Rameśagaurīśau vidyālaye stheyāstām

                                       May Ramesha and Gaureesha remain in school !

                                    pakṣiṇaḥ vṛkṣeṣu stheyāsuḥ

                                    May birds remain in their trees !

Second Person         - tvaṃ sasukhaṃ stheyāḥ

                                       May you remain happy !

                                       yuvāṃ svasthau stheyāstam

                                    May you both remain healthy !

                                   yūyaṃ saubhāgyaśālinaḥ stheyāsta

                                    May you all remain fortunate !

First Person               - ahaṃ vīraḥ stheyāsam

                                       May i remain brave !

                                       āvāṃ tantraśālinau stheyāsva

                                       May we both remain clever !

                                       vayaṃ sāttvikāḥ stheyāsma

                                       May we all remain sublime

gai to sing, luṅ sāmānyabhūte

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           agāsīt             agāsiṣṭām      agāsiṣuḥ

madhyamapuruṣaḥ  second person        agāsīḥ            agāsiṣṭam      agāsiṣṭa uttamapuruṣaḥ           first person           agāsiṣam       agāsiṣva        agāsiṣma

Third Person                                                 -           kokilaḥ madhuram agāsīt

                                                                        gāyakau calaccitragānam agāsiṣṭām

                                                                        bālakāḥ rāṣṭragānam agāsiṣuḥ

Second Person                                 -           tvaṃ stotram agāsīḥ

                                                                        yuvāṃ rāmāyaṇam agāsiṣṭam

                                                                        yūyaṃ deśabhaktigānam agāsiṣṭa

First Person                                       -          ahaṃ śāstriyasaṅgītam agāsiṣam

                                                                        āvāṃ lokagītam agāsiṣva

                                                                        vayaṃ saṅghagānam agāsiṣma

vad, to speak, tell, lṛṅ

                                                                      singular          dual               pluralprathamapuruṣaḥ     third person           avadiṣyat       avadiśyatām  avadiṣyan

madhyamapuruṣaḥ   second person        avadiṣyaḥ      avadiṣyatam  avadiṣyata uttamapuruṣaḥ           first person           avadiṣyam     avadiṣyāva    avadiṣyāma

Third Person             saḥ satyamavadiṣyaccedahaṃ taṃ prāśaṃsyam

                                    Had he spoken the Truth, I would have praised him.

                                    tau buddhipūrvam avadiṣyatāṃ cedahaṃ tayorvādaṃ                                                             svyakariṣyam

                                    Had those two spoken rationally, I would have accepted their                                                 argument.

                                    adhyāpakāḥ avadiṣyan ced bālassamyag apaṭhiṣyat

                                    Had the Teacher told them to, the boys would have studied well.

Second Person         tvaṃ samyag avadiṣyaḥ cet sa na aśocayiṣyat

                                    Had you told properly, he would not have been sad.

                                    yadi yuvāṃ kāryam avadiṣyataṃ sa na vṛthā asthāsyat

                                    Had you both told him the position, he would not have sat idle.

                                    yadi yūyaṃ saṃskṛtena avadiṣyata chātrā api saṃskṛtena                                                      avadiṣyan

                                    Had you all spoken Sanskrit, so would have, the students.

First Person               yadyahaṃ kathāṃ avadiṣyaṃ bālāḥ saśraddham aśroṣyan

                                    Had I told them a story, the children would have listened with                                                 interest.

                                    āvāṃ tamavadiṣyāva cetsa yathāsamayam āgamiṣyat

                                    Had we both told him, he would have arrived in time.

                                    yadi vayaṃ yuvakam avadiṣyām saḥ sanmārgam adrakṣyat

                                    Had we spoken to the lad, he would have seen the right path.

Note        Slight changes have been made in these English version Examples. Introduction to Lakāras has also been changed.

  1. 4.Lakārāḥ - Conjugational Suffixes

Lakāraḥ, or the letter 'l', to be precise, is an affix added to verbal roots to arrive at verbal forms. This 'l' is of ten kinds distinguished by the different anubandhas and, thus, represents altogether ten Tenses and Moods in which the verbs are conjugated. The ten lakāras are - laṭ, liṭ, luṭ, lṛṭ, leṭ, loṭ, laṅ , liṅ, luṅ, and lṛṅ . Of these, 'leṭ' is found used only in the Vedas and therefore does not form the subject of Classical Sanskrit. However, the liṅ is of two types - the vidhiliṅ and the āśīrliṅ, and so we are once again left with ten. Thus, is it said - laḍvarttamāne leḍvede bhūte laṅluṅliṭastathā |

                                                vidhyāśiṣo'stu liṅloṭau luṭlṛṭlṛṅ ca bhaviṣyati ||

That is, the laṭ is used in the sense of the Present, the leṭ only in the Vedas, the laṅ ,luṅ and liṭ are for the Past, for command and Blessing the liṅ and loṭ while luṭ, lṛṭ, lṛṅ are for the Future sense.

The lakāras are added to the transitive roots in the Active and Passive Voice, to represent the different tenses and moods of an action, whereas, to the intransitive roots, they are added in the Active voice and the Impersonal. Of these, six stand for the Tenses and four represent different Moods. Those that represent the Tenses are -

                        Tenses                     Third Person Singular form of the root bhū, to be

i          laṭ - varttamāne                                 Present Tense                      bhavati

ii          laṅ - anadyatane bhūte                   Past Imperfect                       abhavat

iii        luṅ - sāmānyabhūte                        Aorist                                      abhūt

iv        liṭ - parokṣe (bhūte)                          Past Perfect                           babhūva

v         luṭ - anadyatane bhaviṣyatkāle    First future                             bhavitā

vi                     lṛṭ - sāmānye bhaviṣyatkāle          Second Future                      bhaviṣyati

The Moods are -

i           loṭ - ājñāprārthanādiṣu                                   Imperative                 bhavatu

ii          vidhiliṅ - vidhinimantrāṇāmantranādiṣu      Potential                   bhavet

iii         āśīrliṅ - āśiṣi                                                   Benedictive              bhūyāt

iv         lṛṅ - kriyātipattau, hetuhetumadbhāve            Conditional           abhaviṣyat

There are two ways in which the verbal roots are conjugated in these ten lakāras, - the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada. The conjugations have Three Persons and three numbers for every root in each Tense and Mood, which results in nine forms of every verb in every Tense/ Mood. These forms are arrived at by substituting the lakāra by nine suffixes each for the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada conjugation, the substitute   suffixes, thus, summing up to eighteen. These eighteen suffixes are -

the Parasmaipada suffixes                                                            the Atmanepada suffixes

tip                    tas                   jhi                                            ta         ātām               jha

sip                   thas                 tha                                           thās     āthām             dhvam

mip                  vas                  mas                                        iṭ          vahi                 mahiṅ

The Tiṅanta –Conjugated forms

These eighteen suffixes are called the Tiṅsuffixes, a name coined by joining the first letter of the first suffix and the last letter of the last. A verbal root combined with any of these suffixes makes for a Tiṅanta, which, like a subanta, is recognised as a pada which alone can be used in a meaningful sentence since the maxim is apadaṃ na prayuñjīta -never employ in a sentence, what is not a pada. So theTiṅantas or the conjugated verbal forms are a very important ingredient in a sentence.

The Tiṅpratyayas along with śitpratyayas ( suffixes of which the ś is designated it and gets dropped) which are enjoined under the head of Dhātu or verbal roots, also get designated as Sārvadhātuka while any other pratyaya that is enjoined after a Dhātu under the head "Dhātu", is called an ārdhadhātuka . These also determine the ultimate conjugational forms of a verbal root since the Sārvadhātukapratyayasbring forth a distinguishing mark called the vikaraṇacihna in their active conjugation, which the ārdhadhātukas do not.

Although the Tiṅpratyayas are only eighteen in number, nine each for each type of conjugation, these nine are retained only in the laṭlakāra or the Present Tense, where

also they undergo changes,, and in the other Tenses and Moods, they get altogether substituted by other suffixes. Because of this, in effect, only laṭ, laṅ, loṭ and vidhiliṅ remain Sārvadhātukas and the rest become ārdhadhātukas. When the Sārvadhātuka suffixes follow, the distinguishing mark or vikaraṇa will be śap for the group of roots beginning with bhū , in the Active Voice.

The following therefore, are the endings that the verbs take in the different conjugations-

Conjugatonal Endings


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas

               Singular        Dual           Plural                        Singular       Dual                     Plural

3rd person     ti               taḥ              anti                              te            ite                ante

2nd person    si              thaḥ           tha                               se           ithe               dhve

1st person      mi             vaḥ             maḥ                            i              vahe                        mahe

The roots get 'śap-vikaraṇa' of which only the 'a' remains. The conjugation, thus, for example will be - root + vikaraṇa + tip -> bhū + śap (a) + ti -> bho + a+ ti = bhavati.

Similarly for Atmanepada, edh + a + te = edhate.The complete conjugation for the roots bhū &edh in the present tense or laṭlakāra will be -

            bhavati bhavataḥ     bhavanti              edhate      edhete          edhante

            bhavasi bhavathaḥbhavatha             edhase      edhethe     edhadhve

            bhavāmi bhavāvaḥbhavāmaḥ          edhe         edhāvahe    edhāmahe


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular   Dual              Plural                       Singular       Dual         Plural

3rd person     t           tām                  an                                ta         itām                anta

2nd person   s          tam                  ta                                 thāḥ     ithām              dhvam

1st person      am       va                    ma                               i           vahi                 mahi

During conjugation, the Augment aṭ in the beginning, is an additional feature in this tense.

Examples      abhavat     abhavatām   abhavan      aidhata       aidhetām       aidhanta

Rooṭ bhū &     abhavaḥ   abhavatam   abhavata   aidhathāḥ   aidhethām   aidhadhvam

Rooṭ edh         abhavam   abhavāva   abhavāma   aidhe           aidhāvahi       aidhāmahi


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas

                  Singular       Dual                 Plural                       Singular       Dual         Plural

3rd Person     tu/tāt                tām         antu                                    tām                  itām          antām

2ndPerson     tāt                    tam           ta                            sva                  ithām       dhvam

1st Person     āni                   āva           āma                       ai                  āvahai       āmahai

Examples      Rooṭ bhū & Rooṭedh

3rd P   bhavatu/bhavatāt     bhavatām bhavantu     edhatām      edhetām      edhantām

2nd P       bhava                   bhavatam bhavata       edhasva      edhethām   edhadhvam

1st P       bhavāni                 bhavāva   bhavāma                        edhai  edhāvahai     edhāmahai


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                       Singular       Dual         Plural

3rd Person   īt           ītām                 īyuḥ                             īta        īyātām                        īran

2nd Person   īḥ         ītam                 īta                                īthāḥ   īyāthām          īdhvam

1st person      īyam    īva                   īvama                         īya       īvahi                īmahi

Examples Rooṭ bhū & Rooṭsaha

                   Singular       Dual                 Plural             Singular       Dual                     Plural

3rd Person   bhavet  bhavetām   bhaveyuḥ             saheta      saheyātām     saheran

2nd Person bhaveḥ            bhavetam     bhaveta             sahethāḥ    saheyāthām  sahedhvam

1st person   bhaveyam bhaveva    bhavema             saheya     sahevahi        sahemahi

All the above forms are characterised by the distinguishing mark or vikaraṇa, śap, since the tiṅ in these are sārvadhātuka. The remaining forms, i.e., luṭ, lṛṭ, lṛṅ, āśīrliṅ, liṭ and luṅ are substituted by ārdhadhātukas and hence, do not get the vikaraṇa. The Parasmaipada and ātmanepada suffixes for these lakāras after undergoing some changes, and the consequent forms of illustrative roots are given below -


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                        Singular       Dual         Plural

3rd Person            tā              tārau      tāraḥ                             tā             tārau           tāraḥ

2nd Person         tāsi             tāsthaḥ   tāstha                      tāse       tāsāthe         tādhve

1st Person        tāsmi           tāsvaḥ            tāsmaḥ                     tāhe     tāsvahe     tāsmahe

Examples      bhavitā   bhavitārau            bhavitāraḥ   edhitā     edhitārau   edhitāraḥ

rooṭ bhū &       bhavitāsi bhavitāsthaḥ bhavitāstha     edhitāse   edhitāsāthe edhitādhve

Rooṭ edh         bhavitāsmi bhavitāsvaḥ bhavitāsmaḥ edhitāhe edhitāsvahe edhitāsmahe


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                       Singular       Dual         Plural

3rd Person        syati       syataḥ       syanti                       syate            syete      syante  

2nd Person       syasi     syathaḥ       syatha                     syase       syethe      syadhve

1st Person        syāmi     syāvaḥ       syāmaḥ                   sye         syāvahe     syāmahe

Examples      bhaviṣyati bhaviṣyataḥ bhaviṣyanti         edhiṣyate edhiṣyete edhiṣyante

rooṭ bhū &       bhaviṣyasi   bhaviṣyathaḥ   bhaviṣyatha       edhiṣyase edhiṣyethe edhiṣyadhve

Rooṭ edh       bhaviṣyāmi     bhaviṣyāvaḥ   bhaviṣyāmaḥ edhiṣye edhiṣyāvahe edhiṣyāmahe


In this, the root gets the augment aṭ just as in laṅ, the endings are also like laṅlakāra. The infix is like that of the lṛṭ.

parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                   Singular       Dual              Plural

3rd Person      (a)syat     (a)syatām  (a)syan               (a)syata   (a)syetām          (a)syanta  

2nd Person     (a)syaḥ     (a)syatam     (a)syata           (a)syathāḥ (a)syethām   (a)syadhvam 1st Person            (a)syam   (a)syāva       (a)syāma            (a)sye       (a)syāvahi     (a)syāmahi

Examples      abhaviṣyat abhaviṣyatām abhaviṣyan     aidhiṣyata aidhiṣyetām   aidhiṣyanta

rooṭ bhū abhaviṣyaḥ abhaviṣyatam abhaviṣyata   aidhiṣyathāḥ aidhiṣyethām aidhiṣyadhvam

&Rooṭ edh abhaviṣyam abhaviṣyāva   abhaviṣyāma     aidhiṣye   aidhiṣyāvahi   aidhiṣyāmahi


parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                   Singular       Dual              Plural

3rd Person           yāt         yāstām    yāsuḥ                       sīṣṭa        sīyāstām     sīran

2nd Person          yāḥ         yāstam      yāsta                       sīṣṭāḥ     sīyāsthām    sīdhvam

1st Person           yāsam     yāsva     yāsma                       sīya        sīvahi           sīmahi

Examples      bhūyāt   bhūyāstām bhūyāsuḥ     edhiṣīṣṭa     edhiṣīyāstām   edhiṣīran

rooṭ bhū        bhūyāḥ bhūyāstambhūyāsta       edhiṣīṣṭāḥ   edhiṣīyāsthām edhiṣīdhvam

&Rooṭ edh   bhūyāsam   bhūyāsva bhūyāsma  edhiṣīya       edhiṣīvahi      edhiṣīmahi


Conjugation in this lakāra is of two kinds - one in which reduplication or dvitva is involved and another in which anuprayoga takes place. In the latter kind, the expressions ām followed by the liṭ forms of the roots as, bhū or kṛ (eg.- āmāsa, āmbabhūva or āñcakāra / āñcakre) are used as the endings in accord with the Person and number. Some roots have both types of conjugations while the rest have either the one or the other.

The endings in the former kind are as follows -

parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                     Singular       Dual              Plural                   Singular       Dual              Plural

3rd Person           a                atuḥ    uḥ                              e                      āte          ire

2nd Person           tha             athuḥ     a                               se                    āthe       dhve

1st Person           a                va           ma                            e                      vahe      mahe

Example for the reduplicative type - rooṭ bhū

            babhūva     babhūvatuḥ     babhūvuḥ     

          babhūvitha babhūvathuḥ   babhūva      

         babhūva   babhūviva         babhūvima

Example for the anuprayoga type - rooṭ edh

          edhāmbabhūva                    edhāmbabhūvatuḥ                           edhāmbabhūvuḥ

            edhāmbabhūvitha                edhāmbabhūvathuḥ                         edhābabhūva

            edhābabhūva                        edhāmbabhūviva                             edhāmbabhūvima

Similarly, edhāmāsa etc.

Example for ātmanepada - rooṭ edh

            edhāñcakre                           edhāñcakrāte                                    edhāñcakrire

            edhāñcakṛṣe                         edhāñcakrāthe                                  edhāñcakṛḍhve

            edhāñcakre                           edhāñcakṛvahe                                 edhāñcakṛmahe

Note : Any of the roots as, bhū and kṛ can be used for anuprayoga with ām. While, as and bhū take their original parasmaipadī form, irrespective of whichever root they are used with, kṛdhātu, being ubhayapadī, is used in parasmaipadī form with parasmaipadī roots and ātmanepadī form with ātmanepadī roots.

NB Changes have been made above in the liṭ explanation and examples and more information has been added than is given in the Sanskrit Version.


Like laṅlakāra, luṅ is also characterised by aṭ augment to the root.There are many types of conjugations in luṅ and many different suffixes are added in both parasmaipada and ātmanepada, all of which are not being given here. It is advisable to refer to Siddhāntakaumudī for detailed learning. However, examples of one type each in parasmaipada and ātmanepada are as follows -

parasmaipadapratyayas (after changes)                          ātmanepadapratyayas                      Singular       Dual              Plural                   Singular       Dual              Plural

3rd Person          t                 tām      an                              ta                     itām        anta

2nd Person          s                tam        ta                              thā                 itām        dhvam

1st Person           am             va           ma                            i                       vahi        mahi

Examples      abhūt   abhūtām abhūvan           adikṣata       adikṣetām         adikṣanta

rooṭ bhū        abhūḥ   abhūtam abhūta           adikṣaṭhāḥ     adikṣetām     adikṣadhvam

&Rooṭ diś   abhūvam abhūva   abhūma       adikṣe          adikṣvahi             adikṣmahi

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