Liṅgabodhaḥ - Gender

Words are of two kinds - verbs or those denoting action and nouns, those denoting a name, place, thing or abstract notions. Verbs are technically known as tiṅanta inSanskrit and nouns are called subanta. These are formed by adding tiṅ and sup vibhaktis to verbal roots and nominal stems respectively.The subantas include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, indeclinables etc. Following are some examples-

Nominal word - रामः, सीता, वनम् ।

Pronominal word- सर्व, त्वम्, अहम्, एषः।

Adjectival word -   सुन्दरः, सुन्दरी, सुन्दरम्।

Indeclinable word-उच्चैः, नीचैः, अद्य, श्वः।

The nominal stems are divided into three genders - Masculline, Feminine and Neuter. Pāṇini explains the division in Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana.Gender -determination of stems has to be learnt carefully through precepts, usage of the Learned in earlier works, paying attention to the relation of adjective - substantive in a sentence etc. The determination of gender is relevant only for the formation of words and has nothing to do with the meaning or actual gender.

Along with Gender,the last letter of the nominal stem plays a very important role in the formation of nominal words in different cases. The stem which has a in the end is called akārānta, that with i in the end is ikārānta, with u in the end ukārānta, with e, ekārānta, o, okārānta etc. Stems ending in vowels are referred to by the general term ajanta. Those ending in consonants are vyañjanānta or halanta. They are also known by the specific consonant they end in such as nakārānta, takārānta etc.

Ajantapuṃlliṅgaśabdāḥ - Vowel-ending Masculine Stems

Examine the following to familiarise yourself with an akārānta masculine word -

बालः                सूर्यः                  गजः                  मूषकः               विद्यालयः

शुकः                 करः                  अजः                 मार्जारः            करदीपः

खगः                 कर्णः                 दीपः                 वानरः               दिवाकरः

सर्पः                  पादः                 काकः                ऋषभः              स्थलदीपः

वृक्षः                  सिंहः                 चन्द्रः                 सैनिकः

हंसः                  अश्वः                 कूपः                  माधवः

The following are a few of ikārānta masculine words in their nominal singular forms-

 मुनिः                 हरिः                 ऋषिः               muniḥ             hariḥ               ṛṣiḥ

 अग्निः                मणिः                रविः                 agniḥ              maṇiḥ             raviḥ

 कपिः                 असिः                कविः                kapiḥ              asiḥ                 kaviḥ

Now, some ukārānta masculine forms -

गुरुः                  तरुः                  भानुः                 शिशुः               सूनुः                 सेतुः

 guruḥ              taruḥ               bhānuḥ           śiśuḥ              sūnuḥ            setuḥ

 ṛkārānta masculine forms -

 वक्तृ                  श्रोतृ                  पितृ                  भ्रातृ

 vaktṛ                śrotṛ                pitṛ                   bhrātṛ

 aikārānta masculine - रै   rai

 okārānta masculine nominal form - ग्लौ     glau

 Halantapuṃlliṅgaśabdāḥ - Consonant-ending Masculine Stems

 Following are some examples of masculine nominal stems ending in consonants-

 आत्मन्  विद्वस्                मरुत्                 ब्रह्मन्                पुंस्                  

 सुहृद्              चन्द्रमस्                जलमुच्वेधस्                 वणिज्

 ātman             vidvas             marut              brahman                    puṃs             

 suhṛd           candramas       jalamuc          vedhas                       vaṇij

 Ajantastrīliṅgaśabdāḥ - Vowel- ending Feminine Stems

 The following are a few nominal forms of feminine stems ending in ā

 अजा                 प्रार्थना               बाला                पेटिका               माला

 वनिता               नौका                 पाठशाला          जाया               देवप्रिया

 ajā                   prārthanā       bālā                peṭikā             mālā

 vanitā             naukā             pāṭhaśālā       jāyā                devapriyā

 Nominal forms of someikārānta feminine words -

 अङ्गुलिः           बुद्धिः              प्रकृतिः              रात्रिः                भूमिः

 aṅguliḥ           buddhiḥ         prakṛtiḥ          rātriḥ               bhūmiḥ

 īkārānta feminine nominal singular forms -

 जननी                श्रीः       धीः              कौमुदी       मही     

 नर्त्तकी               नारी     लेखनी          नदी

 jananī             śrīḥ      dhīḥ       kaumudī     mahī  

 narttakī           nārī     lekhanī     nadī

 ukārānta feminine nominal singular forms -

 रेणुः                  तनुः                  धेनुः                  चञ्चुः

 reṇuḥ              tanuḥ              dhenuḥ           cañcuḥ

 ūkārānta feminine nominal singular forms -

 वधूः                  चम्पूः                श्वश्रूः

 vadhūḥ           campūḥ          śvaśrūḥ

 ṛkārānta feminine nominal stems -

 मातृ                  स्वसृ                 दुहितृ

 mātṛ                svasṛ               duhitṛ

 An example of okārānta feminine stem - द्यो dyo

 aukārānta feminine stem - नौ nau

 Halantastrīliṅgaśabdāḥ- Consonant-endng feminine stems -

 दिश्                  सरित्                योषित्              वाच्

 diś                   sarit                 yoṣit                vāc

 The feminine stems ending in consonants are often used as ākārānta also by simply adding the feminine suffix ā to them. Eg.-

 तृट् - तृषा                       क्षुध् - क्षुधा                     वाक् - वाचा

 दिक् - दिशा                   निश् - निशा etc.

 tṛṭ - tṛṣā                       kṣudh - kṣudhā         vāk - vācā

 dik - diśā                    niś - niśā      etc.

 Ajantanapuṃsakaliṅgaśabdāḥ - Vowel-ending Neuter Stems

 Following are some akārānta neuter nominal words in their singular forms-

 वनम्                 सुखम्                पुस्तकम्धनम्                 दुःखम्

 वातायनम्         जलम्                वस्त्रम्                नयनम्               गृहम्    

 मुखम्                पत्रम्                 पात्रम्   

 vanam                        sukham          pustakam       dhanam          duḥkham

 vātāyanam   jalam              vastram          nayanam        gṛham

 mukham                     patram            pātram           

 Someikārānta neuter nominal words in their singular forms -

 वारि                 दधि                  अक्षि                 vāri                  dadhi              akṣi

 ukārānta neuter nominal words in their singular forms -

 मधु                   वस्तु                  श्मश्रु                 जानु                  अश्रु                   अम्बु

 madhu            vastu               śmaśru           jānu                aśru                ambu

 ṛkārānta neuter nominal word in the singular form - कर्त्तृ karttṛ ( Also used in masculine and feminine forms).

 Some examples of halanta neuter nominal stems –

 Halantanapuṃsakaliṅgaśabdāḥ - Consonant-endng Neuter Stems

 नामन्              मनस्        यशस्   धामन्        नभस्     तपस्     जगत्   कर्मन्       पयस्

 nāman           manas   yaśas   dhāman   nabhas   tapas   jagat   karman   payas

 Overview

 Now, for an overview of ajanta nouns in nominal singular forms in all genders -

 Ending                 masculine            Feminine              Neuter

 akārānta                     बालः                            -                                  वनम्

 ākārānta                     विश्वपाः                                    बाला                            -                      

 ikārānta                      कविः                            भूमिः                            वारि                

 īkārānta                      सेनानीः                         नदी                              -

 ukārānta                     गुरुः                              धेनुः                              मधु

 ūkārānta                     खलपूः                           वधूः                        -

 ṛkārānta                      पितृ                              मातृ                              कर्त्तृ

 ekārānta                     -                            -                                   -

 aikārānta                    रै

 okārānta                     गौ                                द्यो                         -

 aukārānta                  ग्लौ                               नौ                                 -

 Ending                       masculine                  Feminine                   Neuter

akārānta                     bālaḥ                          -                                  vanam

 ākārānta                     viśvapāḥ                    bālā                            -                      

 ikārānta                      kaviḥ                           bhūmiḥ                       vāri                 

 īkārānta                      senānīḥ                      nadī                            -

 ukārānta                     guruḥ                          dhenuḥ                       madhu

 ūkārānta                     khalapūḥ                    vadhūḥ                            -

 ṛkārānta                      pitṛ                               mātṛ                            karttṛ

 ekārānta                     rai                         -                                   -

 aikārānta                   

 okārānta                     gau                             dyo                        -

 aukārānta                  glau                            nau                             -

 Some nominal stems ending in consonants, tabularised in different genders -

 अन्तः                             पुंलिङ्गः                        स्त्रीलिङ्गः                     नपुंसकलिङ्गः

 ककारान्तः                     सर्वसक्                          -                                   -

 चकारान्तः                     जलमुच्/जलमुक्  वाच्/वाक्                      तिर्यञ्च्

 जकारान्तः                     वणिज्                           स्रज्                              असृज्

 तकारान्तः                      मरुत्                             हरित्                            पचत्

 नकारान्तः                      राजन्                            सीमन्                            नामन्

 णकारान्तः                     सुगण्                            -                                   -

 दकारान्तः                      सुपाद्                            शरद्                             -

 पकारान्तः                      गुप्                               आप्                              -

                                                             (नित्यबहुवचनान्तः- आपः)

 सकारान्तः                      विद्वस्                            -                                   मनस्

 Ending                       Masculine                  Feminine                   Neuter

 kakārāntaḥ                sarvasak                                -                                   -

 cakārāntaḥ                jalamuc/jalamuk       vāc/vāk                       tiryañc

 jakārāntaḥ                 vaṇij                            sraj                              asṛj

 takārāntaḥ                 marut                          harit                            pacat

 nakārāntaḥ                rājan                           sīman                         nāman

 ṇakārāntaḥ                sugaṇ                         -                                   -

 dakārāntaḥ                supād                         śarad                          -

 pakārāntaḥ                gup                             āp                                -

                                                    (nityabahuvacanāntaḥ- āpaḥ)

 (āpaḥ always has plural ending)

 sakārāntaḥ                vidvas                         -                                   manas

 Classify the following nominal words into masculine, feminine and neuter -

 मयूरः                            पुमान्                लता                  पुस्तकम्             बालिका

 विद्यालयः                      विद्वान्               पण्डितः             ब्रह्मा                             अध्यापिका

 पादः                             अजा                 बुद्धिः                छात्रः                            अङ्गुली

 करदीपः                                    जाया                व्यजनम्             नाम                              माता    

 पनसम्                           नेत्रम्                 वायुः                 भ्राता                             रात्रिः

 कण्ठः                            कार्यालयः          गौरी                 लेखनी                           घटिका

 गङ्गा                           केशः                 भल्लूकः             नक्षत्रम्                          बकः

 तृणम्                             वीणा                पर्वतः                वानरी                           कलत्रम्

 mayūraḥ                     pumān                        latā                  pustakam                   bālikā

 vidyālayaḥ                 vidvān                                    paṇḍitaḥ         brahmā                       adhyāpikā

 pādaḥ                         ajā                              buddhiḥ          chātraḥ                       aṅgulī

 karadīpaḥ                  jāyā                             vyajanam       nāma                          mātā  

 panasam                    netram                        vāyuḥ             bhrātā                         rātriḥ

 kaṇṭhaḥ                      kāryālayaḥ                 gaurī               lekhanī                       ghaṭikā

 gaṅgā                         keśaḥ                         bhallūkaḥ       nakṣatram                  bakaḥ

 tṛṇam                          vīṇā                             parvataḥ         vānarī                        

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