Padāni - Words

A meaningful group of letters forms a verbal root, an affix or a nominal stem. A nominal stem is given the technical name Prātipadika in Grammar. A verbal or nominal 'word', pada, is formed by joining a case-suffix, vibhaktipratyaya, at the end of a verbal root or nominal stem. A sentence is made up only of 'words' and not of roots and stems.

Even a single letter, if meaningful, can form a nominal stem. Eg. "a" is a synonym of 'Viṣṇu'.

Words are a combination of vowels and consonants. Eg. n+ā = nā, n+a+r+aḥ= naraḥ, bh+ūḥ= bhūḥ, bh+ū+m+iḥ= bhūmiḥ. In Sanskrit, the same sequence of letters is followed in writing a word as in its pronunciation. All letters in a word are to be articulated clearly. Due attention to the sequence of letters is necessary for acquiring clarity in pronunciation and faultlessness in writing.

Examine carefully, the following illustrations -

ākāśaḥ = ā+k+ā+ś+aḥ ; kusumam = k+u+s+u+m+a+m vāṇī = v+ā+ṇ+ī

Likewise, find out the sequence of letters in the following words -

Practice Exercise

बालः       bālaḥ              =

जीवनम्   jīvanam           =

कूर्मः         kūrmaḥ           =

ओदनः   odanaḥ            =

कौतुकम् kautukam        =

Now, join the following letters to form words and practise by uttering them aloud -

व्+अ+न्+इ+त्+आ   =

व्+आ+य्+उः          =

ल्+ए+ख्+अ+न्+ई   =

व्+अ+न्+अ+म्       =

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